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American Revolution: Battles of Lexington and Concord



Transcript

"By the rude bridge that arch the flood their flags to April breeze unfurled, here once the embattled farmers stood, and fired the shot heard round the world." Those words by the American poet and Concord native, Ralph Waldo Emerson get to the crux of what took place here on Wednesday morning April 19, 1775, when Patriot and militia units returned fire into the British across the bridge that's behind me. Triggering the eight year Odyssey that would become the American War of Independence also known as the American Revolution. Issues like taxation, representation, respect were at the core of the struggle. And nowhere more was that felt than here in Massachusetts.

In early April 1775, Governor General Thomas Gage, commander and military Governor of Massachusetts decided he needed to take action to defuse the hostile relations between the countryside and the city of Boston. At 10 PM on April 18, 1775, Colonel Francis Smith and his adjutant, Major John Pitcairn, lead 800 troops west from Boston-- objective Concord-- seized the weapons, seized ammunitions, returned them to Boston, and put an end to colonial hostility. By 5 o'clock in the morning, they are on the verge of reaching the town of Lexington but express riders including Paul Revere, and William Dawes had gotten out ahead of them to spread what became known as the Lexington Alarm. Arousing the countryside, raising shot, having bells rung so that Patriot militia and Minuteman groups could form and could react to the British presence.

Seventy Minutemen under the command of Captain John Parker gather at Buckman's Tavern in Lexington adjacent to the green. At 5:30 they get word that the British are in sight. Parker takes his men out of the tavern, crosses over the green, lines his men up in two rows deep, 70 men total, not blocking the road, merely standing there to show their defiance and their anger and hostility. Parker was not looking for a fight. The fight rather came to Parker as the British troops came on, entered the green, and faced off against Parker and his men. Parker recognized that he was outnumbered, but he did tell his men "stand your ground, don't fire unless fired upon, but if they mean to have a war, let it begin here." But a shot rings out, and nobody's sure where that shot came from, and the British instinctively fire a volley, 17 fall either wounded or killed.

By the time the British reached Concord at 9:00 in the morning, Patriot units, militia units, Minuteman units from towns like Acton, Sudbury, Lincoln, Bedford begin to converge here. They can see the smoke curling from the town of Concord. The British are burning the guns, the carriages they found. They've cut down the liberty-pole. They're burning that too. But it looks to the Minutemen that the town is being fired, and it is decided to march on the town and either die defending it or die trying to defend it.

At the head of the band of Minutemen that is going to march on the bridge, he turns to Isaac Davis, the 30-year-old popular captain of the active Minuteman and asked Davis if his men are ready to take the lead. Davis says, "I haven't a man that's afraid to go." The British initially hold a ridge across the river on the Western bank but as soon as they see the numbers they know they are out numbered, and they pull back across the bridge tearing up planks as they retreat. As the Patriot units near the bridge, a volley breaks out, and Davis and several of his men are hit and fall. Davis mortally wounded, shortly thereafter dies.

From the back of the line runs Major John Buttrick of Concord saying, "for God's sakes men fire, for God's sakes fellow soldiers fire." And the Americans unleash a volley into the British, that's the shot heard around the world. British troops fall, and the British flee the bridge in panic heading back to Concord. But it is going to be one hell of a return march. For the Minutemen who know the area have now raced to outflank the British and to meet them along a road that will take them back to Boston.

The British are stunned, they're now being fired on by thousands of Minutemen who have converged from 27 towns, and for the next six hours, it is a running gunfight between the British, and militia, and Minuteman units. And nothing has been the same on this planet since. And so began the arduous eight-year journey of the American Revolution and war for independence.
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