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  • Vallathol (Indian writer)

    South Asian arts: Malayalam: …appealed for universal love, while Vallathol (died 1958) responded to the human significance of social progress.

  • Vallattol Narayana Menon (Indian writer)

    South Asian arts: Malayalam: …appealed for universal love, while Vallathol (died 1958) responded to the human significance of social progress.

  • Valldolid Universidad (university, Valladolid, Spain)

    University of Valladolid, coeducational state institution of higher learning at Valladolid, in northwestern Spain. Established in the 13th century as an outgrowth of an old episcopal school of Valladolid, the university was recognized by Pope Clement VI in 1346 and was endowed and granted special

  • Valle Central (valley, Costa Rica)

    Valle Central, highland valley in central Costa Rica, containing most of the country’s large cities and about seven-tenths of the total population. The valley is divided by low volcanic hills (the Continental Divide) 3,000 to 5,000 feet (900 to 1,500 metres) above sea level, which lie between the

  • Valle Central (valley, Chile)

    Central Valley, geological depression in central Chile between the Western Cordillera of the Andes and the coastal range, extending for about 400 miles (650 km) from the Chacabuco Range in the north to the Biobío River in the south. The valley is the agricultural heartland of Chile and consists of

  • Valle Crucis Abbey (abbey, Wales, United Kingdom)

    Llangollen: Historic local features include Valle Crucis Abbey (established c. 1200), Eliseg’s Pillar (a remarkable 9th-century stone cross), Castell-Dinas-Bran (a 13th-century Welsh prince’s stronghold gateway), and a 14th-century bridge across the Dee. Pop. (2001) 3,412; (2011) 3,658.

  • Valle d’Aosta (region, Italy)

    Valle d’Aosta, region, northwestern Italy, containing the upper basin of the Dora Baltea River, from its source near Mount Blanc to just above Ivrea. The region is enclosed on the north, west, and south by the Alps. Originally the territory of the Salassi, a Celtic tribe, the valley was annexed by

  • Valle de la Luna (park, Argentina)

    La Rioja: …southwestern La Rioja and adjacent Ischigualasto Provincial Park in neighbouring northeastern San Juan province were collectively designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 2000. Together, the two parks occupy more than 1,060 square miles (2,750 square km) of the desert region bordering the mountains.

  • Valle de la Pascua (Venezuela)

    Valle de la Pascua, city, northeastern Guárico estado (state), central Venezuela. It lies in the Llanos (plains). Valle de la Pascua is an important regional centre for a large cattle-raising area. Its main commodities are livestock products; the dairy industry is also prominent. The city lies on

  • Valle de Santiago (city, Mexico)

    Valle de Santiago, city, southern Guanajuato estado (state), central Mexico. It lies on the Mesa Central, at 5,770 feet (1,760 metres) above sea level, south of Guanajuato city and north of Laguna de Yuriria. The city is part of the Bajío region and is an important agricultural and commercial

  • Valle del Cauca (department, Colombia)

    Valle del Cauca, departamento, western Colombia, rising from the Pacific lowlands across the Andean Cordillera Occidental to encompass the valley of the upper Cauca River. The department is a leading producer of sugar, rice, tobacco, and coffee. Buenaventura is the nation’s chief Pacific port,

  • Valle del Cibao (region, Dominican Republic)

    Cibao Valley, valley in the northern Dominican Republic. It extends about 145 miles (235 km), from Manzanillo Bay in the west to Samaná Bay in the east. The mountain ranges of the Cordillera Septentrional and the rugged Cordillera Central bound the Cibao Valley on north and south, respectively. I

  • Valle del General (valley, Costa Rica)

    Costa Rica: Relief: Another large structural valley, the Valle del General, lies at the base of the Cordillera de Talamanca in the southern part of the country. To the north and east of the mountainous central spine lie the Caribbean lowlands, constituting about one-fifth of the country and reaching less than 400 feet…

  • Valle y Caviedes, Juan del (Peruvian writer)

    Latin American literature: The Barroco de Indias: …of colonial doings, however, by Juan del Valle y Caviedes, a shopkeeper who was also Spanish-born. Caviedes, the best-known satirical poet of the Barroco de Indias, focused on the frailties of the human body, to the extent that some readers believed him to be syphilitic as well as misanthropic. His…

  • Valle, Barbara (Italian singer and composer)

    Barbara Strozzi, Italian virtuoso singer and composer of vocal music, one of only a few women in the 17th century to publish their own compositions. Barbara Strozzi was the adopted daughter—and likely the illegitimate child—of the poet Giulio Strozzi; her mother, Isabella Garzoni, was a “long-time

  • Valle, Federico Della (Italian poet and dramatist)

    Federico Della Valle, Italian dramatist and poet, recognized in the 20th century as a major literary figure. Little is known of his life at the Savoy court in Turin and in Milan, where in 1628 three of his tragedies were published. The intensely lyrical La reina di Scozia (written in 1591; “The

  • Valle, Filippo della (artist)

    Western sculpture: Late Baroque: Filippo della Valle worked in a classicizing style of almost French sensibility, but the majority of Italian sculpture of the mid-18th century became increasingly picturesque with a strong tendency toward technical virtuosity. Complex sculptured groups designed by Luigi Vanvitelli for the park of the palace…

  • Valle, Pietro della (Italian traveler and writer)

    Pietro della Valle, Italian traveler to Persia and India whose letters detailing his wanderings are valuable for their full descriptions. Valle vowed to make a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, and on June 8, 1614, he sailed from Venice for Istanbul, where he remained a year, learning Turkish and

  • Valle-Inclán, Ramón María del (Spanish writer)

    Ramón María del Valle-Inclán, Spanish novelist, dramatist, and poet who combined a sensuous use of language with bitter social satire. Valle-Inclán was raised in rural Galicia, and after attending law school and visiting Mexico City he settled in Madrid, where he became known for his colourful

  • Valledupar (Colombia)

    Valledupar, capital of César department, northern Colombia. It is situated on a plain between two mountain ranges, the Sierra de Perijá and the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. Founded in 1550, the settlement prospered during the colonial era but suffered much damage in 19th-century civil wars. It is

  • Vallée de Mai National Park (national park, Seychelles)

    Seychelles: Plant and animal life: …including the Aldabra Islands and Vallée de Mai National Park, both UNESCO World Heritage sites. The Aldabra Islands, a large atoll, are the site of a preserve inhabited by tens of thousands of giant tortoises, the world’s oldest living creatures, which government conservation efforts have helped rescue from the brink…

  • Vallée, Hubert Prior (American singer)

    Rudy Vallee, one of the most-popular American singers of the 1920s and ’30s and a film and stage star in the decades that followed. His collegiate style as a singing bandleader made him known across the United States. Vallee’s mother, Katherine, was of Irish descent, and his father, Charles, came

  • Vallee, Rudy (American singer)

    Rudy Vallee, one of the most-popular American singers of the 1920s and ’30s and a film and stage star in the decades that followed. His collegiate style as a singing bandleader made him known across the United States. Vallee’s mother, Katherine, was of Irish descent, and his father, Charles, came

  • Vallée-Poussin, Charles Jean de la (French mathematician)

    mathematics: Riemann: …proved until 1896, when both Charles-Jean de la Vallée Poussin of Belgium and Jacques-Salomon Hadamard of France independently proved it. It is remarkable that a question about integers led to a discussion of functions of a complex variable, but similar connections had previously been made by Dirichlet. Riemann took the…

  • Vallées, Les (region, Switzerland)

    Neuchatel: …its vineyards); an intermediate region, Les Vallées, comprising the two principal valleys of the canton (the Ruz Valley, watered by the Seyon, and the Travers Valley, watered by L’Areuse), which lie at an elevation of 2,300 feet (700 metres); and the highest region, the Neuchateloises Mountains (3,000–3,500 feet [915–1,065 metres]),…

  • Vallejo (California, United States)

    Vallejo, city, Solano county, western California, U.S. It lies along San Pablo Bay at the mouth of the Napa River, just north of Berkeley and Oakland. In 1850 military officer Mariano Guadeloupe Vallejo offered land for the new state capital of California. Although his offer was accepted and the

  • Vallejo, César (Peruvian poet)

    César Vallejo, Peruvian poet who in exile became a major voice of social change in Spanish American literature. Born the 11th child to parents who were both of mixed Spanish and Quechua Indian origins, Vallejo as a child witnessed at first hand hunger and poverty and the injustices done to the

  • Vallejo, César Abraham (Peruvian poet)

    César Vallejo, Peruvian poet who in exile became a major voice of social change in Spanish American literature. Born the 11th child to parents who were both of mixed Spanish and Quechua Indian origins, Vallejo as a child witnessed at first hand hunger and poverty and the injustices done to the

  • Vallejo, Mariano Guadalupe (Mexican military officer)

    Sonoma: …in 1835 by military officer Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo (who had been sent to investigate the Russian outpost at Fort Ross, 50 miles north-northwest) at the site of the Mission San Francisco Solano, the last (1823) and most northerly of the 21 Franciscan California missions. The name Sonoma comes from a…

  • vallenato (folk music)

    Colombia: The arts: …distinctive Colombian musical form is vallenato, which is grounded in narrative songs and features the accordion or guitar along with the cato (a drum) and the guacharaca (a percussion instrument). The national instrument is the 12-stringed guitarlike tiple. Other popular musical styles include bambuco, pasillo, vals, champeta (a fusion of…

  • Vallensis, Laurentius (Italian humanist)

    Lorenzo Valla, Italian humanist, philosopher, and literary critic who attacked medieval traditions and anticipated views of the Protestant reformers. Valla was the son of a lawyer employed at the papal court. His family was from Piacenza. Until he was 24 Lorenzo spent most of his time in Rome,

  • Valleran-Lecomte (French theatrical company)

    Western theatre: French Neoclassicism: …included women, was that of Valleran-Lecomte; it took over the H?tel de Bourgogne toward the end of the century, performing its plays on the medieval-style multiple setting stage. The acting in these Neoclassical plays was not given to realism: each actor stood at the front of the stage to declaim…

  • Valles (region, Bolivia)

    Bolivia: Relief: …is broken up by the Valles, a system of fertile valleys and mountain basins that are generally larger and less confined than those in the Yungas. They lie at elevations mostly between 6,000 and 9,500 feet (1,800 and 2,900 metres) and are noted for their rich, varied agriculture and the…

  • Valles (Mexico)

    Valles, city, eastern San Luis Potosí estado (state), northeastern Mexico. It lies along the Tampaon (or Valles) River, west-southwest of Tampico. Sugarcane, citrus fruits, avocados, coffee, tobacco, and cattle are processed there, and lumbering (principally pine) is also important. The city is a

  • Valles Marineris (canyon region, Mars)

    Valles Marineris, vast system of interconnected canyons on the planet Mars. The system was discovered during, and named for, the Mariner 9 mission in 1971. The canyons extend in an east-west direction for roughly 4,000 km (2,500 miles) just south of the equator between about 30° and 90° W.

  • Vallès, Jules (French writer)

    Jules Vallès, French socialist journalist and novelist, founder of Le Cri du Peuple (1871), which became one of France’s leading socialist newspapers. The son of a provincial schoolteacher, Vallès moved to Paris to pursue his studies and was soon involved in left-wing political activities. He

  • Vallès, Jules-Louis-Joseph (French writer)

    Jules Vallès, French socialist journalist and novelist, founder of Le Cri du Peuple (1871), which became one of France’s leading socialist newspapers. The son of a provincial schoolteacher, Vallès moved to Paris to pursue his studies and was soon involved in left-wing political activities. He

  • Valletta (national capital, Malta)

    Valletta, seaport and capital of Malta, on the northeast coast of the island of Malta. The nucleus of the city is built on the promontory of Mount Sceberras that runs like a tongue into the middle of a bay, which it thus divides into two harbours, Grand Harbour to the east and Marsamxett Harbour to

  • Valletta, Vittorio (Italian executive)

    Fiat SpA: …in the firm’s development was Vittorio Valletta, an unusually skilled administrator, who as general manager guided the day-to-day activities of the company. By the early 1920s Fiat manufactured more than 80 percent of the automobiles sold in Italy, and the company maintained this near monopoly of the domestic market in…

  • valley (geology)

    Valley, elongate depression of the Earth’s surface. Valleys are most commonly drained by rivers and may occur in a relatively flat plain or between ranges of hills or mountains. Those valleys produced by tectonic action are called rift valleys. Very narrow, deep valleys of similar appearance are

  • valley breeze (meteorology)

    breeze: Similarly, a valley breeze is produced by rapid warming of the valley floor that causes the air to expand and flow up the slopes. The rising currents sometimes trigger thunderstorms over the mountains. Nighttime land-surface radiation cools the slopes, causing cooler, denser air to drain into the…

  • Valley City (North Dakota, United States)

    Valley City, city, seat (1879) of Barnes county, southeastern North Dakota, U.S. It lies in the Sheyenne River valley, about 60 miles (100 km) west of Fargo. Before settlement, Cheyenne, Sioux, Cree, and Ojibwa Indians hunted in the area. The community was founded in 1872 with the coming of the

  • Valley fever (pathology)

    Coccidioidomycosis, an infectious disease caused by inhalation of spores of the fungus Coccidioides immitis. C. immitis can be found in the soil, and most infections occur during dry spells in semiarid regions of the southwestern United States, especially around the San Joaquin Valley, and in the

  • Valley Forge (historical area, United States)

    Valley Forge, in the American Revolution, Pennsylvania encampment grounds of the Continental Army under General George Washington from December 19, 1777, to June 19, 1778, a period that marked the triumph of morale and military discipline over severe hardship. Following the American failures at the

  • Valley Forge National Historical Park (park, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Valley Forge National Historical Park, national historical park, southeastern Pennsylvania, U.S. The 5.4-square-mile (14-square-km) park commemorates the site where Gen. George Washington camped with his Continental Army in the winter of 1777–78 during the American Revolution. The park was

  • Valley Girl (film by Coolidge [1983])

    Martha Coolidge: …movie with the highly successful Valley Girl. Two years later she directed her first major Hollywood studio movie, Real Genius. Her other feature films included Rambling Rose (1991); Lost in Yonkers (1993), based on Neil Simon’s award-winning play; Angie (1994), a feminist film that examines the friendship between two women…

  • Valley Girl (song by Zappa)

    Frank Zappa: …unlikely hit single with “Valley Girl” (1982), which featured a rap by his daughter Moon Unit, and, shortly before his death from prostate cancer in 1993, he was finally recognized as a composer of “serious” music when his Yellow Shark suite was performed and recorded by Germany’s Ensemble Modern.…

  • valley glacier

    glacier: Mountain glaciers: In this discussion the term mountain glaciers includes all perennial ice masses other than the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets. Those ice masses are not necessarily associated with mountains. Sometimes the term small glaciers is used, but only in a relative sense: a…

  • valley oak (plant)

    white oak: The California white oak (Q. lobata), also called valley oak, is an ornamental and shade tree, often 30 m (100 feet) tall. It has graceful, drooping branches, many-lobed dark green leaves, and distinctive acorns about 5 cm (1.7 inches) long. The ash-gray to light-brown bark, slightly…

  • Valley of Amazement, The (novel by Tan)

    Amy Tan: The Valley of Amazement (2013) told the stories of an American woman, who opens a high-class brothel in Shanghai, and her daughter, who is trained as a courtesan. An excerpt from the novel had been published in 2011 as the e-book Rules for Virgins.

  • Valley of Decision, The (film by Garnett [1945])

    Tay Garnett: Films of the 1940s: …of Louis Bromfield’s novel, and The Valley of Decision (1945), a socially conscious melodrama set in 1870s Pittsburgh. In the latter movie, the actress portrayed a housemaid who falls in love with the son (Gregory Peck) of her employer, a steel magnate who owns the mill where her father suffered…

  • Valley of Flowers National Park (park, India)

    Uttarakhand: Recreation: …residents and visitors are the Valley of Flowers and Nanda Devi national parks (together designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1988) in the northern Kumaun Himalayas, Rajaji National Park in the western Siwaliks, and Corbett National Park in the Himalayan foothills. Many also enjoy visiting the state’s mountain lakes

  • Valley of Love (film by Nicloux [2015])

    Gérard Depardieu: Other movies included Mammuth (2010), Valley of Love (2015), Un Beau Soleil intérieur (2017; Let the Sunshine In), and Mon cochon et moi (2018; Saving My Pig). From 2016 to 2018 Depardieu appeared in the Netflix TV series Marseille, a French-language drama about corruption and politics. He also starred in…

  • Valley of the Dolls (novel by Susann)

    best seller: …so that Jacqueline Susann’s novel Valley of the Dolls (1966) and David Reuben’s Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Sex but Were Afraid to Ask (1969) were both among the top 20 all-time best sellers of the 20th century in the United States.

  • Valley of the Dolls (film by Robson [1967])

    Mark Robson: Later films: Robson next directed Valley of the Dolls (1967), a melodrama based on Jacqueline Susann’s salacious best seller about the personal and professional struggles of three women. Although widely panned, the film was a box-office hit, and it developed a cult following for its campy quality, especially the over-the-top…

  • Valley of the Heart’s Delight (region, California, United States)

    Silicon Valley, industrial region around the southern shores of San Francisco Bay, California, U.S., with its intellectual centre at Palo Alto, home of Stanford University. Silicon Valley includes northwestern Santa Clara county as far inland as San Jose, as well as the southern bay regions of

  • Valley of the Sun (valley, Arizona, United States)

    Phoenix: The Salt River valley, popularly called the Valley of the Sun, includes not only Phoenix but also nearby cities such as Mesa, Scottsdale, and Tempe. Phoenix plays a prominent role in the economy of the Mountain West region of the country, serving as a financial, communications,…

  • Valley Pike (highway, United States)

    Shenandoah Valley: …route of the famous 19th-century Valley Turnpike (also now an interstate highway) was early used by Native Americans and later became a main artery for westward expansion. The lower valley was explored by the Frenchman Louis Michelle in 1707, and in 1716 the British colonial governor Alexander Spotswood led an…

  • valley quail (bird)

    quail: …California, or valley, quail (Callipepla californica) and Gambel’s, or desert, quail (Lophortyx gambelii). Both species have a head plume (larger in males) curling forward.

  • valley temple (Egyptian architecture)

    pyramid: …a pavilion (usually called the valley temple), situated at the edge of the cultivation and probably connected with the Nile by a canal. Scores of royal pyramids have been found in Egypt, but many of them were reduced to mere mounds of debris and long ago plundered of their treasures.

  • valley train (geology)

    outwash: …deposit is known as a valley train.

  • valley, lily of the (plant)

    Lily of the valley, (Convallaria majalis), fragrant perennial herb and only species of the genus Convallaria in the asparagus family (Asparagaceae). Native to Eurasia and eastern North America, lily of the valley is cultivated in shaded garden areas in many temperate parts of the world. The plants

  • Valley, The (Anguilla)

    Anguilla: The Valley is the principal town and the administrative centre of the island. Noted for its easygoing atmosphere and magnificent beaches and waters, Anguilla is a popular tourist destination. Area 35 square miles (91 square km). Pop. (2006 est.) 14,254.

  • Valleys of the Assassins, The (work by Stark)

    Freya Stark: In her first major book, The Valleys of the Assassins (1934), Stark established her style, combining practical travel tips with an entertaining commentary on the people, places, customs, and history of Persia (now Iran). Thereafter, she traveled extensively in the Middle East, Turkey, Greece, and Italy, where she made her…

  • Valli, Alida (Italian actress)

    Alida Valli, (Alida Maria Laura von Altenberger), Italian actress (born May 31, 1921, Pula, Italy [now in Croatia]—died April 22, 2006, Rome, Italy), had roles in more than 100 films, but she was best known outside Italy for her chilling portrayal of Anna Schmidt in the British film-noir classic T

  • Valli, Frankie (American singer)

    the Four Seasons: The principal members were Frankie Valli (original name Francis Castelluccio; b. May 3, 1937, Newark, New Jersey, U.S.), Tommy DeVito (b. June 19, 1936, Belleville, New Jersey), Bob Gaudio (b. November 17, 1942, New York, New York), and Nick Massi (original name Nicholas Macioci; b. September 19, 1935, Newark—d.…

  • Valli, Romolo (Italian actor)

    Romolo Valli, Italian actor who appeared in leading stage roles and won many awards for his work in motion pictures. He was also well known as a theatre manager and founded the Compagnia dei Giovani with his friend Giorgio de Lullo in 1954. Valli’s first major success came in the early 1950s at the

  • Vallière, Louise-Fran?oise de La Baume le Blanc, Duchess de la (French mistress)

    Louise-Fran?oise de La Baume le Blanc, duchess de La Vallière, mistress of King Louis XIV (reigned 1643–1715) from 1661 to 1667. La Vallière, the daughter of a military governor, was appointed maid of honour in 1661 to Louis XIV’s sister-in-law Henrietta Anne of England, Duchess d’Orléans. Although

  • Vallières, Pierre (Canadian writer)

    Pierre Vallières, Canadian writer whose Les Negres blancs d’Amerique (1968; White Niggers of America, 1971) reflected his anger at injustice and became the Quebec separatist movement’s call to action; at first favouring violence as a means of gaining independence, he came to prefer the political

  • Vallin de la Mothe, Jean-Baptiste M. (French architect)

    St. Petersburg: Admiralty Side: …Dvor (1761–85), originally designed by Jean-Baptiste M. Vallin de la Mothe. This building forms an irregular square and opens onto four streets; formerly it was a mercantile centre. Other department stores line Nevsky Prospekt, as do many restaurants, cafés, and theatres—most notably the Pushkin Academic Drama Theatre.

  • Vallin, Charles (French politician)

    fascism: Sexism and misogyny: In a speech in 1937, Charles Vallin, vice president of the French Social Party, equated feminists with insubordinate proletarians: “It is not with class struggle that the social question will be resolved. Yet, it is toward a sort of class struggle, opposing the feminine ‘proletariat’ to the masculine ‘capitalist,’ that…

  • Vallingby (Sweden)

    Sven Markelius: …he supervised the design of Vallingby, a satellite community established in 1953.

  • vallis (plant)

    Tape grass, (genus Vallisneria), genus of 14 species of perennial aquatic plants of the family Hydrocharitaceae. Tape grasses grow fully submerged in fresh or brackish water and are native to temperate and tropical waters around the world. Some species—namely, straight tape grass (Vallisneria

  • Vallisneria (plant)

    Tape grass, (genus Vallisneria), genus of 14 species of perennial aquatic plants of the family Hydrocharitaceae. Tape grasses grow fully submerged in fresh or brackish water and are native to temperate and tropical waters around the world. Some species—namely, straight tape grass (Vallisneria

  • Vallisneria americana (plant)

    Hydrocharitaceae: Vallisneria spiralis and V. americana are two eelgrasses commonly used as aquarium plants. Turtle grass (Thalassia species) is often washed ashore in such quantities following storms at sea that it is collected and used as a fertilizer. Hydrilla verticillata, the sole member of its genus, is a troublesome…

  • Vallisneria spiralis (plant)

    Hydrocharitaceae: Vallisneria spiralis and V. americana are two eelgrasses commonly used as aquarium plants. Turtle grass (Thalassia species) is often washed ashore in such quantities following storms at sea that it is collected and used as a fertilizer. Hydrilla verticillata, the sole member of its genus,…

  • Vallombrosa (Italy)

    Vallombrosa, village, Firenze province, Toscana (Tuscany) region, north central Italy, in a valley on the northern slope of the Monti (mountains) Pratomagno, 21 mi (33 km) southeast of Florence (Firenze). Surrounded by a magnificent forest, it was originally the site of the hermitage of Sta. Maria

  • Vallone, Raf (Italian actor)

    Raffaele Vallone, (“Raf”), Italian actor (born Feb. 17, 1916, Tropea, Italy—died Oct. 31, 2002, Rome, Italy), was one of the leading stars of Italian Neorealist films of the 1940s. Though an associaton football (soccer) player in his youth, he became a journalist and was discovered while r

  • Vallone, Raffaele (Italian actor)

    Raffaele Vallone, (“Raf”), Italian actor (born Feb. 17, 1916, Tropea, Italy—died Oct. 31, 2002, Rome, Italy), was one of the leading stars of Italian Neorealist films of the 1940s. Though an associaton football (soccer) player in his youth, he became a journalist and was discovered while r

  • Vallotton, Félix (Swiss-born French graphic artist and painter)

    Félix Vallotton, Swiss-born French graphic artist and painter known for his paintings of nudes and interiors and in particular for his distinctive woodcuts. Vallotton was raised in a traditional bourgeois and Protestant household. After completing secondary school, he left Lausanne in 1882 for

  • Vallotton, Félix Edouard (Swiss-born French graphic artist and painter)

    Félix Vallotton, Swiss-born French graphic artist and painter known for his paintings of nudes and interiors and in particular for his distinctive woodcuts. Vallotton was raised in a traditional bourgeois and Protestant household. After completing secondary school, he left Lausanne in 1882 for

  • Valls, Manuel (prime minister of France)

    France: The Hollande administration: Days later, Hollande’s prime minister, Manuel Valls, resigned his post and declared his intention to pursue the Socialist nomination for the presidency. The presidential race had already experienced one surprise, when the Republicans (formerly the UMP) resoundingly closed the door on Nicolas Sarkozy’s political comeback ambitions. Sarkozy finished a distant…

  • Valluvar (Indian poet)

    Tiruvalluvar, Tamil poet-saint known as the author of the Tirukkural (“Sacred Couplets”), considered a masterpiece of human thought, compared in India and abroad to the Bible, John Milton’s Paradise Lost, and the works of Plato. Little is known about the life of Tiruvalluvar except that he is

  • Valmarana, Palazzo (palace, Vicenza, Italy)

    Andrea Palladio: Visits to Rome and work in Vicenza: This is developed in the Palazzo Valmarana, Vicenza, of 1565, along with an increasing use of stucco surface reliefs and giant orders, or columns, extending more than one story. The latter are both Mannerist elements, used particularly by Michelangelo. Giant orders were also used in the massive and unfinished Palazzo…

  • Valmiki (Hindu sage)

    Ramayana: …300 bce, by the poet Valmiki and in its present form consists of some 24,000 couplets divided into seven books.

  • Valmiki Pratibha (opera by Tagore)

    South Asian arts: Modern theatre: Tagore did his first opera, Valmiki Pratibha (“The Genius of Valmiki”), in 1881, after returning from England, where he became familiar with Western harmonies. Prithvi Raj Kapoor, E. Alkazi, and Utpal Dutt all had their earlier training in English productions. Norah Richards, an Irish-born actress who came to the Punjab…

  • Valmont (fictional character)

    Valmont, fictional character, an amoral libertine who amuses himself by corrupting innocents in Dangerous Liaisons (1782), an epistolary novel by Pierre Choderlos de

  • Valmont (film by Forman [1989])

    Milo? Forman: …break from directing, reappearing with Valmont (1989), an adaptation of Pierre Choderlos de Laclos’s classic novel Dangerous Liaisons. However, Forman’s version—which starred Colin Firth, Annette Bening, and Meg Tilly—was generally compared unfavourably to Stephen Frears’s adaptation, which had been released the previous year.

  • Valmont, Vicomte de (fictional character)

    Valmont, fictional character, an amoral libertine who amuses himself by corrupting innocents in Dangerous Liaisons (1782), an epistolary novel by Pierre Choderlos de

  • Valmy, Battle of (European history [1792])

    Battle of Valmy, (20 September 1792). Although little more than a skirmish during the French Revolutionary Wars, Valmy was one of history’s decisive battles; the Prussian march on Paris to restore the French monarchy was halted and the French Revolution saved. The Prussians and their allies

  • Valmy, Fran?ois-Christophe Kellerman, duc de (French general)

    Fran?ois-Christophe Kellermann, duke de Valmy, French general whose defeat of a Prussian army at Valmy in September 1792 halted an invasion that threatened the Revolutionary regime in France. Born into a family of the judicial nobility, Kellermann became an officer in the French Army in 1752. He

  • Valois (region, France)

    Valois, historic region of France that gave its name to the second line of the Capetian dynasty; it corresponds to the southeastern quarter of the modern département of Oise, with an adjacent portion of Aisne. Under the Merovingian kings (c. 500–751) and their successors, the first Carolingians,

  • Valois dynasty (French dynasty)

    Valois Dynasty, the royal house of France from 1328 to 1589, ruling the nation from the end of the feudal period into the early modern age. The Valois kings continued the work of unifying France and centralizing royal power begun under their predecessors, the Capetian dynasty (q.v.). The House of

  • Valois, George (French politician)

    fascism: National fascisms: …short-lived Faisceau (1925–28), led by Georges Valois; the Young Patriots (Jeunesses Patriotes), led by Pierre Taittinger; French Solidarity (Solidarité Fran?aise), founded and financed by Fran?ois Coty and led by Jean Renaud; the Franks (Francistes), led by Marcel Bucard; the French Popular Party (Parti Populaire Fran?ais), led by Jacques Doriot; and…

  • Valois, Ninette de (Irish-born British dancer)

    Dame Ninette de Valois, Irish-born British dancer, choreographer, and founder of the company that in October 1956 became the Royal Ballet. She was influential in establishing ballet in England. After study with Enrico Cecchetti and varied experience as a dancer in pantomime, revues, and opera, de

  • Valona (Albania)

    Vlor?, town that is the second seaport of Albania. It lies at the head of Vlor?s Bay on the Adriatic Sea, which is protected by the mountainous Karaburun (peninsula) and the island of Sazan (Italian Saseno, ancient Saso). Of ancient origin, it was founded as Aulon, one of three Greek colonies on

  • Valor of Ignorance, The (work by Lea)

    Homer Lea: …dictated his well-known military analysis, The Valor of Ignorance (1909). In the latter work, Lea predicted a U.S.-Japanese war in which Hawaii would be the key position and specified how the Japanese would conquer the Philippines and attempt an invasion of the United States proper along the coast of Washington…

  • valorization (economics)

    Brazil: The coffee presidents: …de Janeiro—inaugurated a federally supported scheme in 1906 by which the government would purchase excess coffee and remove it from the international market in order to maintain a stable price.

  • Valóság (Hungarian literary periodical)

    Attila József: …launched a short-lived literary periodical, Valóság, and in 1936 became one of the cofounders of the review Szép Szó. In his own poetry József presented intimate pictures of proletarian life. He immortalized his mother, a poor washerwoman, and made her a symbol of the working class. He created a style…

  • Valozhyn (Belarus)

    Elijah ben Solomon: …great yeshiva (Talmudic academy) at Volozhin (now Valozhyn, Belarus), which trained several generations of scholars, rabbis, and leaders. Elijah’s writings were published posthumously and include commentaries and numerous annotations on the Bible, Talmud, Midrash, and other works.

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