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  • Vising Island (island, Sweden)

    Lake V?tter: …there are few harbours, and Vising Island (Visings?), with an area of 9.5 square miles (24.5 square km), is one of the few islands. The region around the lake developed after 1832 with the opening of the G?ta Canal, which uses the lake and continues on to Stockholm at Motala,…

  • Visings? (island, Sweden)

    Lake V?tter: …there are few harbours, and Vising Island (Visings?), with an area of 9.5 square miles (24.5 square km), is one of the few islands. The region around the lake developed after 1832 with the opening of the G?ta Canal, which uses the lake and continues on to Stockholm at Motala,…

  • Visi? delectable (work by Torre)

    encyclopaedia: Content arrangement: …de la Torre began his Visi? delectable in almost that exact order, and only when he had laid these foundations did he proceed to the problems of science, philosophy, theology, law, and politics. Thus, the seven liberal arts were regarded by the early encyclopaedists as the very mathematics of human…

  • Visio Wettini (poem by Walafrid Strabo)

    Walafrid Strabo: …826, Walafrid set to verse Visio Wettini (“The Vision of Wettin”), recording a mystical experience described by his first tutor. With its poetic images of hell, purgatory, and paradise, Visio Wettini anticipated Dante’s Divine Comedy. Later Walafrid wrote his most important poem, Liber de cultura hortorum (“Book on the Art…

  • vision (religion)

    Christianity: Western Catholic Christianity: …introduced a triple classification of visions—corporeal, spiritual (i.e., imaginative), and intellectual—that influenced later mystics for centuries. Although he was influenced by Neoplatonist philosophers such as Plotinus, Augustine did not speak of personal union with God in this life. His teaching, like that of the Eastern Fathers, emphasized the ecclesial context…

  • vision (Celtic literature)

    Celtic literature: Prose: …of religious work was the vision, exemplified in Fís Adamnáín (The Vision of Adamnan), whose soul is represented as leaving his body for a time to visit heaven and hell under the guidance of an angel. Both the saints’ lives and the visions tended to degenerate into extravagance, so that…

  • vision (physiology)

    Vision, physiological process of distinguishing, usually by means of an organ such as the eye, the shapes and colours of objects. See eye;

  • Vision After the Sermon (painting by Gauguin)

    Synthetism: …decorative style is Gauguin’s “Vision After the Sermon” (1888; National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh). This large work includes peasant women leaving the church in the lower part of the canvas; above them is the vision of Jacob wrestling with the angel, which was the sermon of the day. Gauguin…

  • Vision and Design (critical work by Fry)

    art criticism: Critical response to early avant-garde art: …which, as he wrote in Vision and Design (1920), “plasticity has become all-important” and in which “all is reduced to the purest terms of structural design.” (It should be noted that Fry organized the first extensive exhibition of Post-Impressionist art in England, making it clear that curatorial courage can be…

  • Vision de Babouc (work by Voltaire)

    Voltaire: Life with Mme du Chatelet: Vision de Babouc (1748) and Memnon (1749) dispute the philosophic optimism of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and Alexander Pope. Zadig (1747) is a kind of allegorical autobiography: like Voltaire, the Babylonian sage Zadig suffers persecution, is pursued by ill fortune, and ends by doubting the tender…

  • Vision of Adamnán, The (Gaelic literature)

    The Vision of Adamnán, in the Gaelic literature of Ireland, one of the earliest and most outstanding medieval Irish visions. This graceful prose work dates from the 10th century and is preserved in the later The Book of the Dun Cow (c. 1100). Patterned after pagan voyages (immrama) to the

  • Vision of Judgement, The (work by Byron)

    Lord Byron: Life and career: …on the poet Robert Southey, The Vision of Judgment, which contains a devastating parody of that poet laureate’s fulsome eulogy of King George III.

  • Vision of MacConglinne, The (Gaelic literature)

    Celtic literature: Prose: …Aislinge Meic Con Glinne (The Vision of MacConglinne).

  • Vision of Piers Plowman, The (work by Langland)

    Piers Plowman, Middle English alliterative poem presumed to have been written by William Langland. Three versions of Piers Plowman are extant: A, the poem’s short early form, dating from the 1360s; B, a major revision and extension of A made in the late 1370s; and C, a less “literary” version of B

  • Vision of Poets, A (work by Browning)

    Emily Dickinson: Development as a poet: …of Barrett Browning’s works, “A Vision of Poets,” describing the pantheon of poets, and Aurora Leigh, on the development of a female poet, seem to have played a formative role for Dickinson, validating the idea of female greatness and stimulating her ambition. Though she also corresponded with Josiah G.…

  • Vision of Saint Bernard (work by Perugino)

    Perugino: Mature work: …during this time are the Vision of St. Bernard, the Madonna and Saints, the Pietà, and the fresco of the Crucifixion for the Florentine convent of Sta. Maria Maddalena dei Pazzi. These works are characterized by ample sculptural figures gracefully posed in simple Renaissance architectural settings, which act as a…

  • Vision of Salomé (dance by Allan)

    Maud Allan: Her most famous piece was Vision of Salomé, which brought her international acclaim in the years before World War I. As the exotic biblical character Salome, Allan danced barefoot in a halter of beads and a long, flowing translucent skirt, all of which unsettled some audience members. Allan toured frequently,…

  • Vision of Sir Launfal, The (poem by Lowell)

    The Vision of Sir Launfal, long verse parable by James Russell Lowell, published in 1848. Lowell, who was influenced by the works of Alfred, Lord Tennyson, and Thomas Malory, offers his version of the Grail story in this tale of a knight who decides not to take a journey in search of the Holy Grail

  • Vision of St. Anthony (work by Murillo)

    Bartolomé Esteban Murillo: The Vision of St. Anthony (1656), one of Murillo’s most celebrated pictures, is an early example of his so-called “vaporous” style, which was derived from Venetian painting. In 1660 Murillo was one of the founders and first president of the Academy of Painting in Sevilla. During…

  • Vision of St. Bernard (work by Bartolommeo)

    Fra Bartolommeo: His Vision of St. Bernard (completed 1507) shows him achieving the transition from the subtle grace of late Quattrocento painting to the monumentality of the High Renaissance style.

  • Vision of St. Bernard, The (work by Lippi)

    Filippino Lippi: …picture, the beautiful altarpiece of The Vision of St. Bernard, has been variously assigned to the years 1480 and 1486. In Rome Filippino decorated the Carafa Chapel in Santa Maria sopra Minerva. Nothing in Filippino’s earlier works prepares for the vein of inspiration that he struck in the Carafa Chapel,…

  • Vision of St. Jerome (work by Parmigianino)

    Parmigianino: …in Rome is the large Vision of St. Jerome (1527). Although this work shows the influence of Michelangelo, it was Raphael’s ideal beauty of form and feature that influenced his entire oeuvre. While at work on the Vision of St. Jerome in 1527, he was interrupted by soldiers of the…

  • Vision of St. John (work by El Greco)

    El Greco: Later life and works: In the unfinished Vision of St. John, El Greco’s imagination led him to disregard the laws of nature even more. The gigantic swaying figure of St. John the Evangelist, in abstractly painted icy-blue garments, reveals the souls of the martyrs who cry out for deliverance. In like manner,…

  • Vision of the Last Judgment, A (essay by Blake)

    William Blake: Visions of eternity: ” In his essay “A Vision of the Last Judgment,” Blake wrote:

  • Vision of William concerning Piers the Plowman, The (work by Langland)

    Piers Plowman, Middle English alliterative poem presumed to have been written by William Langland. Three versions of Piers Plowman are extant: A, the poem’s short early form, dating from the 1360s; B, a major revision and extension of A made in the late 1370s; and C, a less “literary” version of B

  • vision quest (Native American religion)

    Vision quest, supernatural experience in which an individual seeks to interact with a guardian spirit, usually an anthropomorphized animal, to obtain advice or protection. Vision quests were most typically found among the native peoples of North and South America. The specific techniques for

  • Vision, A (prose by Yeats)

    William Butler Yeats: …philosophy in the prose work A Vision (1925, revised version 1937); this meditation upon the relation between imagination, history, and the occult remains indispensable to serious students of Yeats despite its obscurities.

  • vision, persistence of (physiology)

    animation: Early history: …entertainment, discovered the principle of persistence of vision. If drawings of the stages of an action were shown in fast succession, the human eye would perceive them as a continuous movement. One of the first commercially successful devices, invented by the Belgian Joseph Plateau in 1832, was the phenakistoscope, a…

  • Visionary or Pictures from Nordland, The (work by Lie)

    Jonas Lie: …eller billeder fra Nordland (1870; The Visionary or Pictures from Nordland, 1894). The first Norwegian story of the sea and of business life, Tremasteren “Fremtiden” eller liv nordp? (1872; The Barque “Future,” 1879), followed. Two novels from his Naturalistic period are Livsslaven (1883; “The Life Convict,” Eng. trans.One of Life’s…

  • Visions of Cody (work by Kerouac)

    Jack Kerouac: Sketching, poetry, and Buddhism: Visions of Cody (written in 1951–52 and published posthumously in 1972), an in-depth, more poetic variation of On the Road describing a buddy trip and including transcripts of his conversation with Cassady (now fictionalized as Cody), was the most successful realization of the sketching technique.

  • Visions of Eight (film)

    John Schlesinger: Films of the late 1960s and ’70s: …segment on the marathon in Visions of Eight (1973), a documentary on the 1972 Olympic Games in Munich, Schlesinger returned to the United States to film Day of the Locust (1975), based on Nathanael West’s novel about the savagery lurking behind the facade of the Hollywood dream machine. Despite a…

  • Visions of Extremity in Modern Literature (work by Krieger)

    Murray Krieger: …were later published together as Visions of Extremity in Modern Literature (1973). Krieger was among the earliest literary critics to insist on the importance of literary theory; he also stated, in The Play and Place of Criticism (1967), that language provides order and meaning to human experience. Among his later…

  • Visions of Gerard (work by Kerouac)

    Jack Kerouac: Later work: …was published as the spiritual Visions of Gerard. Another important autobiographical book, Vanity of Duluoz (1968), recounts stories of his childhood, his schooling, and the dramatic scandals that defined early Beat legend.

  • Visions of the Daughters of Albion (work by Blake)

    William Blake: …and difficult “prophecies,” such as Visions of the Daughters of Albion (1793), The First Book of Urizen (1794), Milton (1804[–?11]), and Jerusalem (1804[–?20]). The dating of Blake’s texts is explained in the Researcher’s Note: Blake publication dates. These works he etched, printed, coloured, stitched, and sold, with the assistance of…

  • Visions of the End of the World (work by Leonardo da Vinci)

    Leonardo da Vinci: Later painting and drawing: …his series of pictorial sketches Visions of the End of the World (c. 1517–18). There Leonardo’s power of imagination—born of reason and fantasy—attained its highest level. Leonardo suggested that the immaterial forces in the cosmos, invisible in themselves, appear in the material things they set in motion. What he had…

  • Visions, Les (work by Lamartine)

    Alphonse de Lamartine: Political career: …wanted to write a poem, Les Visions, that he had been thinking about since 1821 and that he had conceived of as an “epic of the soul.” The symbolic theme was that of a fallen angel cast out of heaven for having chosen the love of a woman and condemned…

  • visit and search (military procedure)

    Visit and search, procedure adopted by a belligerent warship to ascertain whether a merchant vessel is liable to seizure. If an inspection of the papers shows the ship to be an enemy vessel or to be carrying contraband, breaking blockade, or engaging in unneutral service, it is immediately

  • Visit from St. Nicholas, A (narrative poem)

    A Visit from St. Nicholas, narrative poem first published anonymously in the Troy (New York) Sentinel on December 23, 1823. It became an enduring part of Christmas tradition, and, because of its wide popularity, both Nicholas, the patron saint of Christmas, and the legendary figure Santa Claus were

  • Visit from the Goon Squad, A (novel by Egan)

    Jennifer Egan: Her next novel was A Visit from the Goon Squad, which follows the life of a record producer as well as a number of other characters, covers several decades, is told from different points of view, and does not follow a linear or chronological order. The novel ultimately reveals…

  • Visit of the Queen of Sheba (painting by Fontana)

    Lavinia Fontana: Her Visit of the Queen of Sheba to Solomon is her most ambitious surviving narrative work. She was elected a member of the Roman Academy, a rare honour for a woman.

  • Visit to a Small Planet (film by Taurog [1960])

    Norman Taurog: Martin and Lewis films: They fared less well with Visit to a Small Planet (1960), about an alien visitor (Lewis). It was based on a Gore Vidal play, but the film replaced much of the original satire with Lewis’s slapstick antics, and the resulting production was uneven.

  • Visit to the Exposition of 1889, A (work by Rousseau)

    Henri Rousseau: Civil service career and early paintings: …wrote a vaudeville play entitled A Visit to the Exposition of 1889, which he did not succeed in having produced. In this play, as in other theatrical works he wrote, his naiveté revealed itself even more than in the technical aspects of his painting. Also revealed, however, was his intense…

  • Visit, The (play by Dürrenmatt)

    The Visit, drama in three acts by Swiss playwright Friedrich Dürrenmatt, performed and published in German in 1956 as Der Besuch der alten Dame. The play’s protagonist Claire, a multimillionaire, visits her hometown after an absence of many years and offers the residents great wealth if they will

  • visita (Spanish government)

    visitador: The institution of the visita (“inspection”) was applied also to the Spanish colonies in the Americas. The visitador reported to the Council of the Indies (colonial office) in Madrid. Visitas were to be initiated without warning; they might concern only one official or province or an entire principal colonial…

  • visitador (Spanish government official)

    Visitador, (Spanish: “inspector”, ) royally appointed official sent periodically in the late Middle Ages to investigate the administration of justice in the towns of the Spanish Kingdom of Castile. In the late 15th century, the visitadores were also enjoined to inspect the other aspects of civic

  • Visitandines (Roman Catholic order)

    Visitandine, a Roman Catholic order of nuns founded by St. Francis de Sales and St. Jane Frances de Chantal at Annecy, Fr., in 1610. The order was originally destined for charitable work, visiting and caring for the sick and poor in their homes, as well as for prayer. But, after five years of this

  • Visitante (Puerto Rican musician)

    Calle 13: …of language, while his stepbrother, Eduardo José Cabra Martínez (“Visitante”; b. September 10, 1978, San Juan, Puerto Rico), masterminded the music. The duo was one of the most popular and influential groups on the Latin popular music scene in the early 21st century.

  • Visitation (Christianity)

    Visitation, the visit, described in the Gospel According to Luke (1:39–56), made by the Virgin Mary, pregnant with the infant Jesus, to her cousin Elizabeth. At the sound of Mary’s greeting, the pregnant Elizabeth felt the infant St. John the Baptist leap in her womb, which, according to later

  • Visitation of Holy Mary, Congregation of the (Roman Catholic order)

    Visitandine, a Roman Catholic order of nuns founded by St. Francis de Sales and St. Jane Frances de Chantal at Annecy, Fr., in 1610. The order was originally destined for charitable work, visiting and caring for the sick and poor in their homes, as well as for prayer. But, after five years of this

  • Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Feast of the (Roman Catholicism)

    Visitation: The Feast of the Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary is celebrated in the Roman Catholic Church on May 31 (or, until 1969, on July 2).

  • Visitation Order (Roman Catholic order)

    Visitandine, a Roman Catholic order of nuns founded by St. Francis de Sales and St. Jane Frances de Chantal at Annecy, Fr., in 1610. The order was originally destined for charitable work, visiting and caring for the sick and poor in their homes, as well as for prayer. But, after five years of this

  • Visitation, Articles of (English history)

    petit jury: …a distinct form when the Articles of Visitation in England (1194) separated accusatory and trial juries—the grand and petit juries of today.

  • Visiteurs du soir, Les (film by Carné)

    Marcel Carné: Les Visiteurs du soir (1942; The Devil’s Envoys), a costume drama that combines spectacle with romantic passion, is photographed with the lyricism and flowing smoothness characteristic of all Carné’s films. Les Enfants du paradis (1945; Children of Paradise), a fictionalized portrait of the mime Jean-Gaspard Deburau, paints a rich and…

  • Visiting Edna (play by Rabe)

    David Rabe: …Fire (first performed 2012); and Visiting Edna (2016).

  • Visiting Mrs. Nabokov, and Other Excursions (essays by Amis)

    Martin Amis: …Other Visits to America (1986), Visiting Mrs. Nabokov, and Other Excursions (1993), The War Against Cliché (2001), and The Rub of Time: Bellow, Nabokov, Hitchens, Travolta, Trump. Essays and Reportage, 1994-2016 (2017). Experience (2000), an autobiography that often focuses on his father, was acclaimed for an emotional depth and profundity…

  • Visitors, The (film by Kazan [1972])

    Elia Kazan: Films, stage work, and writing of the 1960s and ’70s: The Visitors (1972), one of Kazan’s lesser efforts, featured James Woods as a veteran whose service in the Vietnam War comes back to haunt him. Kazan’s final film, The Last Tycoon (1976), was an adaptation of an unfinished novel by F. Scott Fitzgerald, with a…

  • Visits of Elizabeth, The (work by Glyn)

    Elinor Glyn: Her first book, The Visits of Elizabeth, was an epistolary novel, consisting of a group of letters from a young girl to her mother, that described the foibles and philanderings of a group of European aristocrats. First serialized in the World, it was published in book form in…

  • Viskingar och rop (film by Bergman [1972])

    Roger Corman: …foreign films, including Ingmar Bergman’s Cries and Whispers (1972), Federico Fellini’s Amarcord (1973), and Volker Schl?ndorff’s The Tin Drum (1979). Corman sold New World Pictures in 1983 and founded Concorde-New Horizons, a company devoted strictly to movie production.

  • Viskningar och rop (film by Bergman [1972])

    Roger Corman: …foreign films, including Ingmar Bergman’s Cries and Whispers (1972), Federico Fellini’s Amarcord (1973), and Volker Schl?ndorff’s The Tin Drum (1979). Corman sold New World Pictures in 1983 and founded Concorde-New Horizons, a company devoted strictly to movie production.

  • Vislinsky Zaliv (lagoon, Baltic Sea)

    Vistula Lagoon, shallow, marsh-fringed lagoon on the Baltic coast, bisected by the Polish-Russian border and considered part of the Gulf of Gdańsk. Covering 330 square miles (855 square km), it is 56 miles (90 km) long, 6 to 15 miles (10 to 19 km) wide, and up to 17 feet (5 m) deep. The Nogat, the

  • Vísnabók (verse book by Thorláksson)

    Gudbrandur Thorláksson: …a second attempt with the Vísnabók (verse book, 1612), an anthology including Catholic poems such as Lilja—purged of elements incompatible with Lutheran orthodoxy—and new Reformation verses. He introduced the Lutheran catechism in the schools and the first Lutheran prayer and service books. He also determined the geographic position of Iceland…

  • Vi??uism (Hindu sect)

    Vaishnavism, one of the major forms of modern Hinduism, characterized by devotion to the god Vishnu and his incarnations (avatars). A devotee of Vishnu is called a Vaishnava. The devotional Vaishnava literature that emerged in Sanskrit and in vernacular writings from the 10th through the 16th

  • Vi??usvāmin (Hinduism)

    Vishnusvamin, in Hinduism, a Vaishnavite sampradaya (spiritual tradition tracing its lineage to a mythic or divine figure) founded probably in the early 15th century by Vishnusvamin, a South Indian religious figure who taught chiefly in Gujarat state. His system, also called Rudra-sampradaya

  • Visnuvardhana (Eastern Cālukya ruler)

    India: The Deccan: …Pishtapuram with his younger brother Vishnuvardhana as the first king. Pulakeshin then launched another major campaign against the powerful southern Indian kingdom of the Pallavas, in which he defeated their king Mahendravarman I—thus inaugurating a conflict between the two kingdoms that was to continue for many centuries. Pulakeshin II sent…

  • Visnuvardhana (Hoysala ruler)

    India: The Hoysalas and Pandyas: Vishnuvardhana consolidated the kingdom in the 12th century. The Hoysalas were involved in conflict with the Yadava kingdom, which was seeking to expand southward, particularly during the reign of Ballala II (reigned 1173–1220). Hostilities also developed with the Colas to the east. The armies of…

  • visored shrimp (crustacean)

    crustacean: Annotated classification: Leptostraca Permian to present; bivalved carapace encloses 8 pairs of leaflike limbs; movable rostrum; telson with caudal rami; marine; about 10 species. Subclass Hoplocarida Carboniferous to present. Order Stomatopoda (mantis shrimps)

  • Visp-rat (Zoroastrianism)

    Avesta: The Visp-rat is a lesser liturgical scripture, containing homages to a number of Zoroastrian spiritual leaders. The Vendidad, or Vidēvdāt, is the main source for Zoroastrian law, both ritual and civil. It also gives an account of creation and the first man, Yima. The Yashts are…

  • Visrivier (river, Namibia)

    Fish River, stream in southern Namibia. It rises in Namaqualand and flows south across the Great Namaqualand plateau, where it cuts a spectacular gorge 1,000 to 2,300 feet (300 to 700 m) deep, to empty into the Orange River. It is about 375 miles (600 km) long and is

  • Visscher, Anna Roemersdochter (Dutch poet)

    Anna Visscher, Dutch poet and daughter of the Renaissance man of letters Roemer Visscher. She was admired and praised in verse by such poets as Constantijn Huygens and Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft. Anna Visscher’s poetry is rather stiff and impersonal; she wrote for the most part sonnets and

  • Visscher, Frans (Dutch explorer)

    Anthony van Diemen: …expeditions of Abel Tasman and Frans Visscher in 1642 and 1644 on which they discovered Tasmania (originally Van Diemen’s Land), New Zealand, Tonga, Fiji, and the northern coast of Australia.

  • Visscher, Roemer (Dutch poet)

    Roemer Visscher, poet and moralist of the early Dutch Renaissance who was at the centre of the cultural circle that included the young poets Pieter C. Hooft, Joost van den Vondel, and Gerbrand Bredero. A friend of Henric L. Spieghel and Dirck Coornhert, he was foremost in the movement for the

  • Visscher, Roemer Pieterszoon (Dutch poet)

    Roemer Visscher, poet and moralist of the early Dutch Renaissance who was at the centre of the cultural circle that included the young poets Pieter C. Hooft, Joost van den Vondel, and Gerbrand Bredero. A friend of Henric L. Spieghel and Dirck Coornhert, he was foremost in the movement for the

  • Visser ’t Hooft, Willem Adolph (Dutch theologian)

    Willem Adolph Visser ’t Hooft, Dutch clergyman and theologian who led the World Council of Churches as its secretary-general from 1948 to 1966. Visser ’t Hooft was educated at the Haarlem Gymnasium and prepared for the ministry of the Netherlands Reformed Church at the University of Leiden. His

  • VISTA (American organization)

    Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA), American governmental organization (created 1964) that placed volunteers throughout the United States to help fight poverty through work on community projects with various organizations, communities, and individuals. Among the related issues addressed by

  • VistaVision (film process)

    history of the motion picture: The threat of television: …adopted a nonanamorphic process called VistaVision that exposed double-frame images by running film through special cameras and projectors horizontally rather than vertically), and many studios were experimenting with wide-gauge film systems (e.g., Todd-AO, 1955; Panavision-70, 1960) that required special equipment but eliminated the distortion inherent in the anamorphic process.

  • Vistazo (Ecuadorian magazine)

    Ecuador: Media and publishing: Vistazo (“Glance”), in Guayaquil, is the most popular magazine, covering national news events and personalities in a lively and often irreverent fashion. Radio stations include one of the oldest and most powerful transmitters in the Andes, La Voz de los Andes (“The Voice of the…

  • Vistrítsa River (river, Greece)

    Aliákmon River, river, the longest in Greek Macedonia (Modern Greek: Makedonía). The river’s total length is 185 miles (297 km). Rising in the Grámmos Mountains of the eastern Pindus (Píndos) Range on the Albanian frontier, the Aliákmon River flows southeast through gentle valleys and basins and is

  • Vistula (Ohio, United States)

    Toledo, city, seat (1835) of Lucas county, northwestern Ohio, U.S., at the mouth of the Maumee River (bridged). It lies along Maumee Bay (southwestern tip of Lake Erie), about 55 miles (89 km) southwest of Detroit, Mich., and is a principal Great Lakes port, being the hub of a metropolitan complex

  • Vistula Glacial Stage (paleontology)

    Weichsel Glacial Stage, major division of late Pleistocene deposits and time in western Europe (the Pleistocene Epoch began about 2.6 million years ago and ended about 11,700 years ago). The Weichsel Glacial Stage followed the Eemian Interglacial Stage and marks the last major incursion of

  • Vistula Lagoon (lagoon, Baltic Sea)

    Vistula Lagoon, shallow, marsh-fringed lagoon on the Baltic coast, bisected by the Polish-Russian border and considered part of the Gulf of Gdańsk. Covering 330 square miles (855 square km), it is 56 miles (90 km) long, 6 to 15 miles (10 to 19 km) wide, and up to 17 feet (5 m) deep. The Nogat, the

  • Vistula Land (region, Eastern Europe)

    Poland: The January 1863 uprising and its aftermath: …in the kingdom—now called the Vistula Land—were designed to reduce it to a mere province of Russia, denied even the benefits of subsequent reforms in Russia proper. Large garrisons and emergency legislation kept the Poles down. Many individuals involved in the rising were executed or deported to Siberia; thousands of…

  • Vistula River (river, Poland)

    Vistula River, largest river of Poland and of the drainage basin of the Baltic Sea. With a length of 651 miles (1,047 kilometres) and a drainage basin of some 75,100 square miles (194,500 square kilometres), it is a waterway of great importance to the nations of eastern Europe; more than 85 percent

  • Vistula, Operation (Polish history)

    Dolno?l?skie: Geography: …displaced within the framework of Operation Vistula, a massive relocation program in 1947. Population density in Dolno?l?skie is high, though the province has experienced some depopulation, particularly in the Sudeten region, which has accompanied the recent decline of heavy industry. Nearly three-fourths of the population is urban, centred on Wroc?aw,…

  • Vistulan (Slavic tribe)

    Kraków: History: …of the Wi?lanie tribe (Vistulans), who occupied Ma?opolska (Little Poland) until the 10th century. From 988 to 990 Mieszko I, prince of Poland, united the southern and northern territories to form a powerful kingdom, and his son, Boles?aw I (the Brave), later made Kraków the seat of a Polish…

  • Vi?u (Hindu festival)

    Vishu, spring festival observed by Malayali Hindus in Kerala and in adjacent areas of Tamil Nadu, India. Vishu (Sanskrit: “equal”) celebrates the vernal equinox, when day and night are roughly equal length. Although the astronomical equinox falls in late March, the Vishu festival falls on the first

  • visual acuity (physiology)

    human eye: Visual acuity: As has been stated, the ability to perceive detail is restricted in the dark-adapted retina when the illumination is such as to excite only the scotopic type of vision; this is in spite of the high sensitivity of the retina to light under…

  • visual agnosia (pathology)

    agnosia: Visual agnosias are often described as being either associative or apperceptive. Associative visual agnosias are characterized by the inability to ascribe meaning to the objects one sees. Affected individuals cannot distinguish between objects that are real and those that are not. For example, when presented…

  • visual anthropology

    anthropology: Visual anthropology: Visual anthropology is both the practice of anthropology through a visual medium and the study of visual phenomena in culture and society. Therein lie the promise and dilemma of the field. Associated with anthropology since the mid-to-late 19th century, it has not attained…

  • visual approach slope indicator system

    airport: Navigational aids: …aids are in use: the visual approach slope indicator system (VASIS) and the more modern precision approach path indicator (PAPI). Both work on the principle of guiding lights that show white when the pilot is above the proper glide slope and red when below.

  • visual arts

    Art, a visual object or experience consciously created through an expression of skill or imagination. The term art encompasses diverse media such as painting, sculpture, printmaking, drawing, decorative arts, photography, and installation. The various visual arts exist within a continuum that

  • Visual Basic (computer language)

    computer programming language: Visual Basic: Visual Basic was developed by Microsoft to extend the capabilities of BASIC by adding objects and “event-driven” programming: buttons, menus, and other elements of graphical user interfaces (GUIs). Visual Basic can also be used within other Microsoft software to program small routines.

  • visual binary star (astronomy)

    star: Stellar masses: …the mode of observation employed: visual binaries, spectroscopic binaries, and eclipsing binaries.

  • visual cliff (perception research technology)

    rationalism: Types and expressions of rationalism: …perception by experiments with “the visual cliff,” which, though platformed over with firm glass, the infant perceives as hazardous—though these native capacities may at times lie dormant until the appropriate conditions for their emergence arise.

  • visual communications (art)

    Graphic design, the art and profession of selecting and arranging visual elements—such as typography, images, symbols, and colours—to convey a message to an audience. Sometimes graphic design is called “visual communications,” a term that emphasizes its function of giving form—e.g., the design of a

  • visual cortex (anatomy)

    human eye: Striate area: The optic tract fibres make synapses with nerve cells in the respective layers of the lateral geniculate body, and the axons of these third-order nerve cells pass upward to the calcarine fissure (a furrow) in each occipital lobe of the cerebral cortex. This…

  • visual display (information recording)

    information processing: Information display: For humans to perceive and understand information, it must be presented as print and image on paper; as print and image on film or on a video terminal; as sound via radio or telephony; as print, sound, and video in motion pictures, on television…

  • visual field defect

    Visual field defect, a blind spot (scotoma) or blind area within the normal field of one or both eyes. In most cases the blind spots or areas are persistent, but in some instances they may be temporary and shifting, as in the scotomata of migraine headache. The visual fields of the right and left

  • visual flight rule (aviation)

    traffic control: Conventional control techniques: …flight control is called the visual flight rule, in which pilots fly with visual ground reference and a “see and be seen” flight rule. In congested airspace all pilots must obey the instrument flight rule; that is, they must depend principally on the information provided by the plane’s instruments for…

  • visual gauge (measurement instrument)

    gauge: …align work in machine tools; comparators, or visual gauges; and air gauges, which are used to gauge holes of various types. Very precise measurements may also be obtained by the use of light-wave interference, but the instruments that do so are referred to as interferometers.

  • visual illusion

    illusion: Optical phenomena: Numerous optical illusions are produced by the refraction (bending) of light as it passes through one substance to another in which the speed of light is significantly different. A ray of light passing from one transparent medium (air) to another (water) is bent as it emerges.…

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