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  • Vinogradov, Ivan Matveyevich (Soviet mathematician)

    Ivan Matveyevich Vinogradov, Russian mathematician known for his contributions to analytic number theory, especially his partial solution of the Goldbach conjecture (proposed in 1742), that every integer greater than two can be expressed as the sum of three prime numbers. In 1914 Vinogradov

  • Vinogradov, Pavel Gavrilovich (British legal scholar)

    Sir Paul Gavrilovitch Vinogradoff, Anglo-Russian legal scholar and medievalist who was perhaps the greatest authority in his time on the feudal laws and customs of England. Educated at the University of Moscow (Ph.D., 1884), Vinogradoff was appointed professor there and became active in Russian

  • Vinogradsky, Sergey Nikolayevich (Russian microbiologist)

    Sergey Nikolayevich Winogradsky, Russian microbiologist whose discoveries concerning the physiology of the processes of nitrification and nitrogen fixation by soil bacteria helped to establish bacteriology as a major biological science. After studying natural sciences at the University of St.

  • vinous-throated parrotbill (bird)

    parrotbill: …in Chinese cities is the vinous-throated parrotbill (Paradoxornis webbianus). Ranging from Manchuria south through China and Korea to Myanmar (Burma), it frequents bamboo groves, tea plantations, and scrub, as well as gardens. Searching out seeds, it moves in large flocks through the undergrowth and stays in contact with constant sharp…

  • Vinson Massif (mountain, Antarctica)

    Vinson Massif, peak in the Sentinel Range of the Ellsworth Mountains of western Antarctica, overlooking Ronne Ice Shelf. Discovered in 1935 by the American explorer Lincoln Ellsworth, it is, at 16,050 feet (4,892 metres) above sea level, the highest mountain on the continent. The massif slopes

  • Vinson, Fred M. (United States jurist)

    Fred M. Vinson, American lawyer and 13th chief justice of the United States, who was a vigorous supporter of a broad interpretation of federal governmental powers. Following completion of his legal studies at Centre College in Danville, Ky., in 1911, Vinson entered private practice in Louisa and

  • Vinson, Frederick Moore (United States jurist)

    Fred M. Vinson, American lawyer and 13th chief justice of the United States, who was a vigorous supporter of a broad interpretation of federal governmental powers. Following completion of his legal studies at Centre College in Danville, Ky., in 1911, Vinson entered private practice in Louisa and

  • vint (game)

    Vint, trick-taking card game, popular around the Baltic Sea, and a significant contributor to the development of bridge. It developed from a game called Siberia, played in St. Petersburg in the 1870s. This was a form of whist exhibiting the then novel feature that the dealer announced the trump

  • Vinter, Christiern (Danish translator)

    biblical literature: Scandinavian versions: …exiled king Christian II, by Christiern Vinter and Hans Mikkelsen (Wittenberg, 1524). In 1550 Denmark received a complete Bible commissioned by royal command (the Christian III Bible, Copenhagen). A revision appeared in 1589 (the Frederick II Bible) and another in 1633 (the Christian IV Bible).

  • Vinter-Eventyr (short stories by Dinesen)

    Winter’s Tales, collection of short stories by Isak Dinesen, originally published in Danish as Vinter-eventyr in 1942 and then translated by the author into English in the same year. Mostly set against the backdrop of historic Denmark, the 11 stories trace the symbolic destinies of simple

  • Vinter-Parten (work by Kingo)

    Thomas Kingo: …was published in 1689 as Vinter-Parten (“The Winter Part”) but was later rejected by the king. Kingo’s hymns contrast this world with heaven and are deeply personal in their graphic and suggestive use of language. Underneath their Christian orthodoxy, they are both subjective and antithetical, showing the individual as immersed…

  • Vintimille, Pauline de Mailly-Nesle, marquise de (French noble)

    Louis XV: Already Pauline de Mailly-Nesle, marquise de Vintimille, Louis’s mistress from 1739 to 1741, had sponsored the war party that brought France into the inconclusive War of the Austrian Succession (1740–48) against Austria and Great Britain. In September 1745 the king took as his official mistress (ma?tresse…

  • Vinton, Bobby (American singer)

    Bobby Vinton, American pop singer who found success in the 1960s and ’70s with a series of sentimental, orchestrally arranged hits that stood in opposition to the rock vanguard of the time. Vinton grew up near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. As a youth, he learned to play several brass and woodwind

  • Vinton, Stanley Robert, Jr. (American singer)

    Bobby Vinton, American pop singer who found success in the 1960s and ’70s with a series of sentimental, orchestrally arranged hits that stood in opposition to the rock vanguard of the time. Vinton grew up near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. As a youth, he learned to play several brass and woodwind

  • Vinyl (American television series)

    Ray Romano: …record promoter in HBO’s short-lived Vinyl (2016), about the 1970s music scene in New York City, and then as a washed-up movie producer in Get Shorty (2017– ). His first comedy special in over two decades, Ray Romano: Right Here, Around the Corner, premiered on Netflix in 2019. That same…

  • vinyl (chemistry)

    plastic: The composition, structure, and properties of plastics: …polymers having only aliphatic (linear) carbon atoms in their backbone chains. All the commodity plastics listed above fall into this category. The structure of polypropylene can serve as an example; here attached to every other carbon atom is a pendant methyl group (CH3):

  • vinyl acetate (chemical compound)

    Vinyl acetate, colourless, liquid organic compound, the polymer of which is polyvinyl acetate

  • vinyl chloride (chemical compound)

    Vinyl chloride, a colourless, flammable, toxic gas belonging to the family of organohalogen compounds and used principally in making polyvinyl chloride, or PVC, a widely used plastic with numerous applications. The major industrial preparation of vinyl chloride begins with ethylene and has two

  • vinyl compound (chemical compound)

    Vinyl compound, any of various organic chemical compounds, including acrylic compounds and styrene and its derivatives, that are useful in making plastic film; sheeting; upholstery; floor tile; inflatable and solid toys; buttons; molded and extruded articles; fibres for weaving into fabric;

  • vinyl copolymer (chemistry)

    major industrial polymers: Vinyl copolymers: In addition to the copolymers mentioned in previous sections (e.g., fluoroelastomers, modacrylics), a number of important vinyl (carbon-chain) copolymers are manufactured. These include most of the important synthetic elastomers not described in Diene polymers, along with several specialty plastics and thermoplastic elastomers. These…

  • vinyl derivative (chemical compound)

    Vinyl compound, any of various organic chemical compounds, including acrylic compounds and styrene and its derivatives, that are useful in making plastic film; sheeting; upholstery; floor tile; inflatable and solid toys; buttons; molded and extruded articles; fibres for weaving into fabric;

  • vinyl fluoride (chemical compound)

    Vinyl fluoride (H2C=CHF), a colourless, flammable, nontoxic, chemically stable gas belonging to the family of organohalogen compounds and used as the starting material in making polyvinyl fluoride, a plastic used in films for weather-resistant coatings of structural materials. Vinyl fluoride is

  • vinyl plastic (chemical compound)

    floor covering: Smooth-surfaced floor coverings: Vinyl asbestos tiles, containing asbestos fibres, were developed next and introduced at the Chicago World’s Fair in 1933, but resin shortages prevented quantity production until 1948. Vinyl, a newer composition material with a high content of polyvinyl chloride resins, was eventually perfected. The number and…

  • vinyl polymer (chemical compound)

    floor covering: Smooth-surfaced floor coverings: Vinyl asbestos tiles, containing asbestos fibres, were developed next and introduced at the Chicago World’s Fair in 1933, but resin shortages prevented quantity production until 1948. Vinyl, a newer composition material with a high content of polyvinyl chloride resins, was eventually perfected. The number and…

  • vinylbenzene (chemical compound)

    Styrene, liquid hydrocarbon that is important chiefly for its marked tendency to undergo polymerization (a process in which individual molecules are linked to produce extremely large, multiple-unit molecules). Styrene is employed in the manufacture of polystyrene, an important plastic, as well as a

  • vinylic halide (chemical compound)

    organohalogen compound: They are subdivided into alkyl, vinylic, aryl, and acyl halides. In alkyl halides all four bonds to the carbon that bears the halogen are single bonds; in vinylic halides the carbon that bears the halogen is doubly bonded to another carbon; in aryl halides the halogen-bearing carbon is part of…

  • vinylidene chloride (chemical compound)

    Vinylidene chloride, a colourless, dense, toxic, volatile, flammable liquid belonging to the family of organic halogen compounds, used principally in combination with vinyl chloride, acrylonitrile, or methyl methacrylate for the manufacture of a class of plastics called saran. Vinylidene chloride

  • vinylidene fluoride (chemical compound)

    major industrial polymers: Fluoroelastomers: …produced that incorporate the monomers vinylidene fluoride (CH2=CF2), hexafluoropropylene (CF2=CFCF3), and chlorotrifluoroethylene (CF2=CFCl) in addition to tetrafluoroethylene. These elastomers have outstanding resistance to oxygen, ozone, heat, and swelling by oils, chlorinated solvents, and fuels. With service temperatures up to 250° C (480° F), they are the elastomers of choice for…

  • Vinylite (polymer)

    major industrial polymers: Polyvinyl chloride (PVC): …Corporation introduced the trademarked polymer Vinylite, a copolymer of vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate that became the standard material of long-playing phonograph records.

  • vinyltrichlorosilane (chemical compound)

    silane: Chlorotrimethylsilane and vinyltrichlorosilane are used to impart water repellency to numerous materials such as cloth, paper, and glass.

  • Vio, Tommaso de (Catholic theologian)

    Cajetan, one of the major Catholic theologians of the Thomist school. Entering the Dominican order in 1484, Cajetan studied at Bologna and Padua, where he became professor of metaphysics (1494) and where he encountered Scotism (the doctrine of John Duns Scotus, which rivalled Thomism, the doctrine

  • Vioarr (Germanic mythology)

    Fenrir: Odin’s son Vidar will avenge his father, stabbing the wolf to the heart according to one account and tearing his jaws asunder according to another. Fenrir figures prominently in Norwegian and Icelandic poetry of the 10th and 11th centuries, and the poets speak apprehensively of the day…

  • viol (musical instrument)

    Viol, bowed, stringed musical instrument used principally in chamber music of the 16th to the 18th century. The viol shares with the Renaissance lute the tuning of its six strings (two fourths, a major third, two fourths) and the gut frets on its neck. It was made in three sizes: treble, tenor, and

  • viol family (musical instrument)

    Viol, bowed, stringed musical instrument used principally in chamber music of the 16th to the 18th century. The viol shares with the Renaissance lute the tuning of its six strings (two fourths, a major third, two fourths) and the gut frets on its neck. It was made in three sizes: treble, tenor, and

  • Viola (plant genus)

    Viola, genus of about 500 species of herbs or low shrubs, including the small, solid-coloured violets and the larger-flowered, often multicoloured violas and pansies. Viola occur naturally worldwide but are found most abundantly in temperate climates, with the greatest variety occurring in the

  • Viola (fictional character)

    Viola, a shipwrecked young woman, later disguised as the young man Cesario, in Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night. Viola-Cesario stands at the centre of the play as Shakespeare’s example of reason, intelligence, self-control, and mature love. For her moral stature and wit, Viola ranks with Portia and

  • viola (musical instrument)

    Viola, stringed musical instrument, the tenor of the violin family. It is built in proportions similar to those of the violin but has a body length of 37 to 43 cm (14.5 to 17 inches), about 5 cm (2 inches) longer than a violin. Its four strings are tuned c–g–d′–a′, beginning with the C below middle

  • viola bastarda (musical instrument)

    viol: …solo bass, and for the lyra viol, a small bass viol (also called viola bastarda). But as the style of instrumental composition changed during the 17th century, an expressive, vocal sound in the soprano register was emphasized, and the tenor and treble viols declined in favour of the violin, with…

  • Viola crassa (plant)

    mountain ecosystem: Flora: …varied, some, like the violet Viola crassa, are typical of these harsh habitats.

  • viola d’amore (musical instrument)

    stringed instrument: The production of sound: …five sympathetic strings; and the viola d’amore typically has seven. Sympathetic strings are generally made of thin brass or steel, and their vibration reinforces the upper harmonics, thus producing a bright, silvery sound.

  • viola da braccio (musical instrument)

    stringed instrument: The violin family: The violin family comprises the violin, the viola, the cello (violoncello), and the double bass; it forms the backbone of the modern symphony orchestra. In addition, the violin and the viola are widely used in the music of South India and North Africa,…

  • viola da brazzo (musical instrument)

    stringed instrument: The violin family: The violin family comprises the violin, the viola, the cello (violoncello), and the double bass; it forms the backbone of the modern symphony orchestra. In addition, the violin and the viola are widely used in the music of South India and North Africa,…

  • viola da gamba (musical instrument)

    viol: …normal-sized solo bass viol, or viola da gamba (the name became synonymous with the bass viol as the other viols fell into disuse), was used in the instrumental forms of the Baroque period. Solo bass-viol playing continued in Germany and France into the 18th century. Elsewhere the bass viol survived…

  • viola da gamba family (musical instrument)

    Viol, bowed, stringed musical instrument used principally in chamber music of the 16th to the 18th century. The viol shares with the Renaissance lute the tuning of its six strings (two fourths, a major third, two fourths) and the gut frets on its neck. It was made in three sizes: treble, tenor, and

  • Viola odorata (plant)

    Malpighiales: Violaceae: Viola odorata has rhizomes and seeds that are poisonous and cause gastroenteritis, but it also has an essential oil much used in scents.

  • Viola papilionacea (plant)

    Viola: …North American species are the common blue, or meadow, violet (V. papilionacea) and the bird’s-foot violet (V. pedata). The common blue violet grows up to 20 cm (8 inches) tall and has heart-shaped leaves with finely toothed margins. The flowers range in colour from light to deep violet, or they…

  • Viola pedata (plant)

    Viola: papilionacea) and the bird’s-foot violet (V. pedata). The common blue violet grows up to 20 cm (8 inches) tall and has heart-shaped leaves with finely toothed margins. The flowers range in colour from light to deep violet, or they may be white. The bird’s-foot violet, a perennial named…

  • Viola wittrockiana (plant)

    pansy: The garden pansy (V. wittrockiana) is a hybrid, one of whose parents is V. tricolor, which is a weed of European grainfields, the other parents being V. lutea and V. altaica. The tufted pansy, or horned viola (V. cornuta), is the parent of numerous forms of…

  • Viola, Bill (American artist)

    Bill Viola, American video, digital, and sound artist who was one of the pioneering figures of a generation of artists in the 1970s employing video art and sound technologies. Known for his room-sized environments (installations) that envelop viewers with sound and feature multiple screens of

  • Viola, Roberto Eduardo (president of Argentina)

    Dirty War: Roberto Viola, who, with the Dirty War near its end, was quite unable to control his military allies. In December he was shouldered aside by Lieut. Gen. Leopoldo Galtieri. Galtieri faced a slumping economy and increased civil opposition to military rule. After he launched Argentina’s…

  • Viola, William (American artist)

    Bill Viola, American video, digital, and sound artist who was one of the pioneering figures of a generation of artists in the 1970s employing video art and sound technologies. Known for his room-sized environments (installations) that envelop viewers with sound and feature multiple screens of

  • Violaceae (plant family)

    Malpighiales: Violaceae: Violaceae, or the violet family, contains 23 genera and 800 species of herbs to trees with a few vines. The family is largely tropical to warm temperate, although there are relatively few species in Malesia and Australia. Viola (400–600 species) is largely herbaceous and…

  • violas, In (poetry by Poliziano)

    Poliziano: …particular merit are the elegies In violas (“In Violets”) and In Lalagen and the ode In puellam suam (“In Regard to One’s Daughters”). To the same period belong the strange and poetically experimental Sylva in scabiem (1475; “Trees with Mildew”), in which he describes realistically the symptoms of scabies.

  • violation (law)

    crime: Classification of crimes: …a new category called “violations,” which corresponded broadly to the English category of summary offenses.

  • violence (behaviour)

    Violence, an act of physical force that causes or is intended to cause harm. The damage inflicted by violence may be physical, psychological, or both. Violence may be distinguished from aggression, a more general type of hostile behaviour that may be physical, verbal, or passive in nature. Violence

  • Violence Against Women Act (United States [1994])

    Violence Against Women Act (VAWA), U.S. federal legislation that expanded the juridical tools to combat violence against women and provide protection to women who had suffered violent abuses. It was initially signed into law in September 1994 by U.S. Pres. Bill Clinton. Besides changing statutes,

  • Violence Against Women Office (United States federal agency)

    Violence Against Women Office, federal agency, part of the U.S. Department of Justice, that was established in March 1995 to help implement and coordinate some of the measures called for in the 1994 Violence Against Women Act. The act was a comprehensive piece of legislation designed to combat such

  • Violence and Metaphysics (essay by Derrida)

    Western philosophy: Recent trends: …in an early essay, “Violence and Metaphysics” (1967):

  • Violencia! A Musical Novel (novel by Stern)

    Bruce Jay Friedman: …A Father’s Kisses (1996), and Violencia! A Musical Novel (2001). He also wrote such short-story collections as Far from the City of Class (1963), Black Angels (1966), Let’s Hear It for a Beautiful Guy (1984), The Collected Short Fiction of Bruce Jay Friedman (1995), and Three Balconies (2008), which also…

  • Violencia, La (Colombian history)

    Colombia: La Violencia, dictatorship, and democratic restoration: Liberal hegemony continued through the 1930s and the World War II era, and Alfonso López Pumarejo was reelected in 1942; however, wartime conditions were not favourable to social change. In the elections of 1946, two Liberal candidates, Gabriel Turbay…

  • Violent Bear It Away, The (novel by O’Connor)

    The Violent Bear It Away, Southern gothic novel by Flannery O’Connor, published in 1960. It is the story of a young man’s struggle to live with the burden of being a prophet and is representative of the author’s fierce, powerful, and original vision of Christianity. Young Francis Marion Tarwater

  • Violent Cases (graphic novel by Gaiman and McKean)

    Neil Gaiman: …collaborated on the graphic novel Violent Cases (1987). The work established them as rising stars in the comic world, and soon the two were noticed by publishers on both sides of the Atlantic. They submitted story and art treatments to DC Comics, and the result was Black Orchid (1988), a…

  • Violent Cop (film by Kitano)

    Kitano Takeshi: …otoko, kyōbō ni tsuki (Violent Cop), in which he also played the title role. The film, about a Tokyo detective trying to crack a yakuza (“gangster”)-run drug ring, drew comparisons to Clint Eastwood’s Dirty Harry (1971) and was the first in a series of crime epics that included 3–4x…

  • Violent Crime Linkage Analysis System

    police: Criminal profiling: …the most elaborate is the Violent Crime Linkage Analysis System (ViCLAS), which is managed by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. ViCLAS collects extensive data on all homicides and attempted homicides, sexual assaults, missing persons, unidentified bodies of persons known or thought to be homicide victims, and nonparental abductions and attempted…

  • Violent Criminal Apprehension Program

    police: Criminal profiling: …in such investigations; the FBI’s Violent Criminal Apprehension Program (ViCAP), for example, is a database that contains information on violent crimes committed across the United States. The system compares all new cases with all previously entered cases; when two cases are similar enough to have been committed by the same…

  • Violent Land, The (novel by Amado)

    Jorge Amado: …Terras do sem fim (1942; The Violent Land), about the struggle of rival planters, has the primitive grandeur of a folk saga.

  • Violent Life, A (work by Pasolini)

    Pier Paolo Pasolini: …and Una vita violenta (1959; A Violent Life). These brutally realistic depictions of the poverty and squalor of slum life in Rome were similar in character to his first film, Accattone (1961), and all three works dealt with the lives of thieves, prostitutes, and other denizens of the Roman underworld.

  • Violent Saturday (film by Fleischer [1955])

    Richard Fleischer: Middle years: …noir with the highly regarded Violent Saturday (1955), which set a bank robbery in a small town. The Girl in the Red Velvet Swing (1955) was a well-done account of the Evelyn Nesbit scandal; Joan Collins starred as the seductive showgirl whose affair with famed architect Stanford White (Ray Milland)…

  • violet (plant genus)

    Viola, genus of about 500 species of herbs or low shrubs, including the small, solid-coloured violets and the larger-flowered, often multicoloured violas and pansies. Viola occur naturally worldwide but are found most abundantly in temperate climates, with the greatest variety occurring in the

  • violet (colour)

    Violet, in physics, light in the wavelength range of 380–450 nanometres in the visible spectrum. The shortest wavelength of violet is the shortest of all wavelengths of light discernible to the human eye. In art, violet is a colour on the conventional wheel, located between red and blue and

  • violet family (plant family)

    Malpighiales: Violaceae: Violaceae, or the violet family, contains 23 genera and 800 species of herbs to trees with a few vines. The family is largely tropical to warm temperate, although there are relatively few species in Malesia and Australia. Viola (400–600 species) is largely herbaceous and…

  • violet wood sorrel (plant)

    Oxalis: …Canada, with yellow flowers; the violet wood sorrel (O. violacea), of the eastern United States, with rose-purple flowers; the redwood wood sorrel (O. oregana), of the coast redwood belt from California to Oregon, with pink to white flowers; and O. cernua, known as Bermuda buttercups, with showy yellow flowers, native…

  • violet-ear (hummingbird)

    hummingbird: In the violet-ears (Colibri) and a few others, pair bonds are formed, and both sexes assume parental duties. In the majority of other species, the male defends a territory, where he displays in flight to passing females with swoops, dashes, and sudden stops and starts. Often he…

  • Violette Nozière (film by Chabrol [1978])

    Isabelle Huppert: Early career and acclaim: …festival for her performance in Violette Nozière (1978) as a teenager who casually murders her father; it was the first of seven films she made with director Claude Chabrol. In 1980 Huppert appeared in her first English-language film, Heaven’s Gate, a Western that was panned by critics and ignored by…

  • Violette, La (Austrian dancer)

    David Garrick: Reforms of Drury Lane Theatre: …June 22, 1749, Garrick married Eva Maria Veigel, a Viennese opera dancer who spoke little English and was a devout Roman Catholic. Under the stage name of La Violette, she had enchanted audiences at the Opera House in the Haymarket in 1746, and, although she had refused to dance for…

  • Violier, Beno?t (French-born chef and restaurateur)

    Beno?t Violier, French-born chef and restaurateur (born Aug. 22, 1971, Saintes, Charente-Maritime, France—died Jan. 31, 2016, Crissier, Switz.), was head chef from 2012 of Restaurant de l’H?tel de Ville, a Michelin Guide three-star establishment in Crissier, near Lausanne, Switz., that reflected

  • violin (musical instrument)

    Violin, bowed stringed musical instrument that evolved during the Renaissance from earlier bowed instruments: the medieval fiddle; its 16th-century Italian offshoot, the lira da braccio; and the rebec. The violin is probably the best known and most widely distributed musical instrument in the

  • Violin and Palette (painting by Braque)

    Georges Braque: Cubism: For example, in Violin and Palette (1909), Braque painted a trompe l’oeil nail in the midst of the near-abstract planes. In 1911, he stenciled letters into The Portuguese.

  • violin clef (music)

    clef: The treble, or G, clef fixes the position of the G above middle C. In modern notation this is invariably the second line from the bottom of the staff:

  • Violin Concerto (work by Elgar)

    Fritz Kreisler: …performance of Sir Edward Elgar’s Violin Concerto, dedicated to him. After 1915 he lived mainly in the United States but continued to tour widely in Europe. His concert programs frequently included many short pieces by him, among them “Caprice Viennois” (“Viennese Caprice”) and “Sch?n Rosmarin” (“Pretty Rosemary”). His Classical Manuscripts,…

  • Violin Concerto in B Minor (work by Vivaldi)

    musical criticism: Economy: …for four harpsichords of Vivaldi’s Violin Concerto in B Minor, for example, is more than an adaptation from one medium to another. It is an act of musical criticism par excellence. Vivaldi created the idea. But it was left to Bach to give it complete utterance.

  • Violin Concerto in D Major, Op. 61 (work by Beethoven)

    Violin Concerto in D Major, Op. 61, concerto for solo violin and orchestra by Ludwig van Beethoven that is one of the earliest and most frequently performed of violin concerti on such a grand scale. It premiered in Vienna on December 23, 1806. It was Beethoven’s only concerto for violin, and it is

  • Violin Concerto in D Major, Op. 77 (work by Brahms)

    Violin Concerto in D Major, Op. 77, three-movement concerto for violin and orchestra by Johannes Brahms that showcased the virtuosic talents of a longtime friend, the Hungarian violinist Joseph Joachim. Both men participated in its premiere (Brahms as conductor) in Leipzig on January 1, 1879. The

  • Violin Concerto in E Minor, Op. 64 (work by Mendelssohn)

    Violin Concerto in E Minor, Op. 64, concerto for violin and orchestra by Felix Mendelssohn, one of the most lyrical and flowing works of its type and one of the most frequently performed of all violin concerti. It premiered in Leipzig on March 13, 1845. Mendelssohn, then conductor of the Leipzig

  • Violin Concerto No. 1 (work by Henze)

    Hans Werner Henze: …of Henze’s early works, the Violin Concerto No. 1 (1947), demonstrated his mastery of 12-tone technique, which dominated his writing until 1956. Henze considered his early works, up to his Symphony No. 2 (1949), to be simple, or even primitive, as they depended greatly upon the effectiveness of his melodies.

  • Violin Concerto No. 1 in G Minor, Op. 26 (work by Bruch)

    Violin Concerto No. 1 in G Minor, Op. 26, concerto for violin by German composer Max Bruch. It is admired especially for its lyrical melodies, which span nearly the entire range of the instrument. The work premiered in Bremen, Germany, on January 7, 1868, with the virtuoso violinist Joseph Joachim

  • Violin Concerto No. 2 (work by Glass)

    Violin Concerto No. 2, concerto in four movements for solo violin, strings, and synthesizer by Philip Glass that premiered in Toronto on December 9, 2009. The work was written for American violinist Robert McDuffie, who so enjoyed playing Glass’s first violin concerto that he requested another, one

  • Violin Concerto No. 2: ‘The American Four Seasons’ (work by Glass)

    Violin Concerto No. 2, concerto in four movements for solo violin, strings, and synthesizer by Philip Glass that premiered in Toronto on December 9, 2009. The work was written for American violinist Robert McDuffie, who so enjoyed playing Glass’s first violin concerto that he requested another, one

  • violin family (musical instrument)

    stringed instrument: The violin family: The violin family comprises the violin, the viola, the cello (violoncello), and the double bass; it forms the backbone of the modern symphony orchestra. In addition, the violin and the viola are widely used in the music of South India and North Africa,…

  • Violin Sonata in A Major (work by Franck)

    Violin Sonata in A Major, sonata for violin and piano by Belgian composer César Franck, known for its deftly balanced violin and piano parts and for its cyclic form (possessing a theme or motif that recurs across multiple movements of the work). The piece was written for the Belgian violinist

  • Violin Sonata in G Minor (sonata by Tartini)

    The Devil’s Trill, sonata for violin and basso continuo by Italian composer Giuseppe Tartini, dating from about 1713 or, more likely, according to scholars of Tartini’s style, after 1740. About a dozen years younger than his compatriot Antonio Vivaldi, Tartini was a gifted violinist who wrote

  • Violin Sonata No. 9 in A Major, Opus 47, Kreutzer (work by Beethoven)

    Ludwig van Beethoven: Approaching deafness: … or the andante of the Kreutzer Sonata can be seen emerging from trivial and characterless beginnings into their final forms. It seems, too, that Beethoven worked on more than one composition at a time and that he was rarely in a hurry to finish anything that he had on hand.…

  • violin spider (spider)

    Brown recluse, (Loxosceles reclusa), venomous light tan or yellow spider most common in the western and southern United States. It has a body length of about 7 mm (0.25 inch) and a leg span of about 2.5 cm (1 inch). On the front half of its body (the cephalothorax), it has a dark violin-shaped

  • violino piccolo (musical instrument)

    stringed instrument: Other violins: …high-pitched instrument known as the violino piccolo; now and then his works also require the viola d’amore (a fretless hybrid shaped like a viol but sized and played like a viola with sympathetic strings) or the elusive violoncello piccolo (a small cello). These instruments have been in disuse for many…

  • Violino, Carlo del (Italian composer and musician)

    Carlo Caproli, Italian composer, violinist, and organist, considered by Angelo Berardi and others to be one of the best composers of cantatas of his time. Caproli wrote his earliest datable cantata about the time that he was working as an organist at the German College in Rome (1643–45). He was a

  • Violle, Jules-Louis-Gabriel (French physicist)

    Jules Violle, French physicist who at Mont Blanc in the French-Swiss Alps made the first high-altitude determination of the solar constant (1875). A graduate of the école Normale Supérieure at Paris, he taught at the University of Lyon (1883), then at the école and, from 1891, at the Conservatoire

  • Viollet-le-Duc, Eugène-Emmanuel (French architect)

    Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc, French Gothic Revival architect, restorer of French medieval buildings, and writer whose theories of rational architectural design linked the revivalism of the Romantic period to 20th-century Functionalism. Viollet-le-Duc was a pupil of Achille Leclère but was

  • Violon d’Ingres, Le (work by Man Ray)

    Man Ray: …pairs of eyes, and in Le Violon d’Ingres (1924) he photographically superimposed sound holes, or f holes, onto the photograph of the back of a female nude, making the woman’s body resemble that of a violin. He also continued to produce ready-mades. One, a metronome with a photograph of an…

  • Violon rouge, Le (film by Girard [1998])

    The Red Violin: …Corigliano for the 1998 Canadian film of the same name. In 1999 Corigliano’s music for the film—which follows a particular violin from its creation in the late 1600s through the centuries of its history to the late 20th century—won him an Academy Award for best original score.

  • violoncelle (musical instrument)

    Cello, bass musical instrument of the violin group, with four strings, pitched C–G–D–A upward from two octaves below middle C. The cello, about 27.5 inches (70 cm) long (47 inches [119 cm] with the neck), has proportionally deeper ribs and a shorter neck than the violin. The earliest cellos were

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