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  • Vieux-Colombier-Jacques Copeau, Théatre du (French theatre)

    Theatre of the Vieux-Colombier, French theatre founded in Paris in 1913 by the writer and critic Jacques Copeau to present alternatives to both the realistic “well-made” plays of the time and the star system of actor-celebrities. Copeau sought to renovate French theatre by focusing attention on the

  • Vieux-Colombier-Jacques Copeau, Theatre of the (French theatre)

    Theatre of the Vieux-Colombier, French theatre founded in Paris in 1913 by the writer and critic Jacques Copeau to present alternatives to both the realistic “well-made” plays of the time and the star system of actor-celebrities. Copeau sought to renovate French theatre by focusing attention on the

  • Vieux-Montréal (district, Montreal, Quebec, Canada)

    Montreal: Character of the city: …the historic centre known as Old Montreal (Vieux-Montréal), which provides a window into the city’s rich history with its cobblestone streets and architectural styles ranging from the 16th century to the present.

  • Vieux-Port (district, Marseille, France)

    Marseille: The city site: The Old Port is a natural harbour and one of the most westerly of the inlets along the rocky coastline characteristic of the northeastern Mediterranean; farther west, beyond a large tidal lake called the Berre Lagoon (étang de Berre), the shoreline flattens out. There the sandy…

  • Vieuxtemps, Henry (Belgian musician)

    Henry Vieuxtemps, Belgian violinist and composer who was one of the most influential figures in the development of violin playing. As a prodigy, Vieuxtemps was taken by his father on a number of European tours, during which he studied violin with Charles de Bériot in Brussels (1829–31), harmony

  • view camera (photography)

    technology of photography: The view, or technical, camera: For studio and commercial photography the view, or technical, camera takes single exposures on sheet films (formerly plates) usually between 4 × 5 inches and 8 × 10 inches. A front standard carries interchangeable lenses and shutters; a rear standard takes…

  • View from Castle Rock, The (work by Munro)

    Canadian literature: Fiction: …the Happy Shades (1968) to The View from Castle Rock (2006)—depict the domestic lives and relationships of women in Toronto, small-town Ontario, and British Columbia in an increasingly enigmatic style. Leonard Cohen’s Beautiful Losers (1966) probes the relationship between sainthood, violence, eroticism, and artistic creativity. Mavis Gallant

  • View from Coyaba, The (novel by Abrahams)

    Peter Abrahams: 1971) in the Caribbean, and The View from Coyaba (1985) chronicles four generations of a Jamaican family and their experiences with racism. He also wrote the memoirs Tell Freedom: Memories of Africa (1954; new ed. 1970) and The Coyaba Chronicles: Reflections on the Black Experience in the 20th Century (2000).

  • View from Mimeguri, The (work by Shiba Kōkan)

    Shiba Kōkan: …entitled “Mimeguri Keizu” (1783; “The View from Mimeguri”).

  • View From the Bridge, A (film by Lumet [1962])

    Sidney Lumet: The 1960s: Fail Safe, The Pawnbroker, and The Hill: …production Vu du pont (1962; A View from the Bridge) was a well-realized version of Arthur Miller’s drama set on the Brooklyn docks, with Raf Vallone and Maureen Stapleton as an unhappily married couple.

  • View in Delft, with a Musical Instrument Seller’s Stall, A (work by Fabritius)

    Carel Fabritius: …decorations with illusionistic perspective effects; A View in Delft, with a Musical Instrument Seller’s Stall (1652) may possibly reflect this type of work, for it is thought to once have been part of a peep show or a perspective box. The Goldfinch (1654) is one of his best-known works and…

  • View in the Nieuwe Kerk at Haarlem (painting by Saenredam)

    Pieter Saenredam: …Saenredam’s later church portraits include View in the Nieuwe Kerk at Haarlem (1652) and Interior of the St. Cunera Church at Rhenen (1655), which convey a majestic spaciousness and serene atmosphere characteristic of Saenredam’s paintings.

  • View of Amanohashidate (painting by Sesshū)

    Sesshū: Mature years and works: …of landscape painting is the View of Amanohashidate scroll (c. 1501–07), in the Kyōto National Museum. Much more detailed and realistic, it is almost like a topographic view of a particular place.

  • View of Cotopaxi (painting by Church)

    Frederic Edwin Church: …Ecuador (1855), Niagara (1857), and Cotopaxi (1862). In his lifetime, Church received great praise for his work and sold his paintings for high prices. He traveled widely in Europe and the Middle East, but after 1877 he was compelled to abandon painting because of crippling rheumatism in his hands. He…

  • View of Delft (painting by Vermeer)

    Johannes Vermeer: Themes: …emotional power of Vermeer’s magnificent View of Delft (c. 1660–61) similarly results from his ability to transform an image of the physical world into a harmonious, timeless visual expression. In this masterpiece Vermeer depicted Delft from across its harbour, where transport boats would unload after navigating inland waterways. Beyond the…

  • View of the Causes and Consequences of the American Revolution, A (work by Boucher)

    Jonathan Boucher: He nevertheless dedicated to Washington A View of the Causes and Consequences of the American Revolution (1797), consisting of 13 of the eloquent sermons that he had preached in America urging loyalty to England, and he received a friendly acknowledgment.

  • View of the Conduct of the Executive, in the Foreign Affairs of the United States, A (pamphlet by Monroe)

    James Monroe: Minister to France: …pamphlet of 500 pages entitled A View of the Conduct of the Executive, in the Foreign Affairs of the United States. Washington seems never to have forgiven Monroe for this stratagem, though Monroe’s opinion of Washington and Jay underwent a change in his later years. In 1799 Monroe was chosen…

  • View of the Present State of Ireland, A (work by Spenser)

    Edmund Spenser: Career in Ireland: Spenser’s A View of the Present State of Ireland (written 1595–96, published 1633), a later tract, argues lucidly for a typically 16th-century theory of rule: firm measures, ruthlessly applied, with gentleness only for completely submissive subject populations.

  • View of the Principal Deistical Writers that Have Appeared in England in the Last and Present Century; with Observations upon Them, and Some Account of the Answers that Have Been Published Against Them, A (work by Leland)

    Deism: The English Deists: …critical compendium of Deist thought, A View of the Principal Deistical Writers that Have Appeared in England in the Last and Present Century; with Observations upon Them, and Some Account of the Answers that Have Been Published Against Them. This work, which began with Lord Herbert of Cherbury and moved…

  • View of Toledo (painting by El Greco)

    El Greco: Later life and works: The View of Toledo (c. 1595) renders a city stormy, sinister, and impassioned with the same dark, foreboding clouds that appear in the background of his earlier Crucifixion with Donors. Painting in his studio, he rearranged the buildings depicted in the picture to suit his compositional…

  • View on the Seine: Harp of the Winds (painting by Martin)

    Homer Dodge Martin: His best work, including View on the Seine: Harp of the Winds (1895), in which he borrowed the broken colour of the Impressionists but not their high-keyed palette, was done after his return to the United States. Martin’s painting is generally characterized by its spacious design, brilliant colour, and…

  • View over a Flat Landscape (painting by Koninck)

    Philips Koninck: , View over a Flat Landscape (1664) and An Extensive Landscape with a Hawking Party (c. 1670). Contrasting areas of cloud shadow and sunlit landscape give life and variety to the simple compositions. Though sufficiently similar to Rembrandt in style and handling to have often passed…

  • VIEW project (computer science)

    virtual reality: Entertainment: …as founding director of the Virtual Environment Workstation (VIEW) project. The VIEW project put together a package of objectives that summarized previous work on artificial environments, ranging from creation of multisensory and immersive “virtual environment workstations” to telepresence and teleoperation applications. Influenced by a range of prior projects that included…

  • view, point of (literature and film)

    Point of view, in literature, the vantage point from which a story is presented. A common point of view is the omniscient, in which, in the third person grammatically, the author presents a panoramic view of both the actions and the inner feelings of the characters; the author’s own comments on

  • View, The (American television program)

    Whoopi Goldberg: …the daytime television talk show The View.

  • viewfinder (photography)

    Viewfinder, camera component that shows the photographer the area of the subject that will be included in a photograph. In modern cameras it usually is part of a direct visual- or range-finder focusing system and may also be used to display exposure settings or meter information. Modern viewfinders

  • Viewing Shakespeare on Film

    At the end of the 19th and the start of the 20th centuries, when William Shakespeare was becoming an academic institution, so to speak—a subject for serious scholarly study—a revolutionary search began in the world outside the universities for the means to present his great dramas in the new medium

  • Views Afoot (work by Taylor)

    Bayard Taylor: …compiled in the extremely popular Views Afoot (1846). In 1847 he began a career in journalism in New York. Eldorado (1850) recounted his trials as a newspaper correspondent in the 1849 California gold rush. He continued his trips to remote parts of the world—to the Orient, to Africa, to Russia—and…

  • Views and Comments (work by Philaret)

    Philaret: …1905 with the title “Views and Comments.”

  • Víga-Glúms saga (Icelandic saga)

    saga: Sagas of Icelanders: …son’s killer, the local chieftain; Víga-Glúms saga tells of a ruthless chieftain who commits several killings and swears an ambiguous oath in order to cover his guilt; while Vatnsd?la saga is the story of a noble chieftain whose last act is to help his killer escape.

  • Viganò, Salvatore (Italian choreographer and dancer)

    Salvatore Viganò, Italian dancer and choreographer whose innovations included the synthesis of dance and pantomime, which he called “coreodramma,” in highly dramatic ballets based on historical and mythological themes and Shakespearean plays. Viganò was born of a family of dancers and was the

  • Vigarani, Gaspare (Italian architect)

    Giacomo Torelli: His successor at the Petit-Bourbon, Gaspare Vigarani, destroyed his sets, apparently out of jealousy, but the designs for them were reproduced in the Encyclopédie (1751–72) of French philosopher Denis Diderot.

  • Vigée-Le Brun, élisabeth (French painter)

    élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun, French painter, one of the most successful women artists (unusually so for her time), particularly noted for her portraits of women. Her father and first teacher, Louis Vigée, was a noted portraitist who worked chiefly in pastels. In 1776 she married an art dealer, J.-B.-P.

  • Vigée-Le Brun, Marie-Louise-élisabeth (French painter)

    élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun, French painter, one of the most successful women artists (unusually so for her time), particularly noted for her portraits of women. Her father and first teacher, Louis Vigée, was a noted portraitist who worked chiefly in pastels. In 1776 she married an art dealer, J.-B.-P.

  • Vigée-Lebrun, élisabeth (French painter)

    élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun, French painter, one of the most successful women artists (unusually so for her time), particularly noted for her portraits of women. Her father and first teacher, Louis Vigée, was a noted portraitist who worked chiefly in pastels. In 1776 she married an art dealer, J.-B.-P.

  • Vigée-Lebrun, Marie-Louise-élisabeth (French painter)

    élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun, French painter, one of the most successful women artists (unusually so for her time), particularly noted for her portraits of women. Her father and first teacher, Louis Vigée, was a noted portraitist who worked chiefly in pastels. In 1776 she married an art dealer, J.-B.-P.

  • Vigeland, Adolf Gustav (Norwegian sculptor)

    Gustav Vigeland, Norwegian sculptor who was best known for creating an outdoor sculpture complex in Frogner Park, Oslo. Vigeland, whose father was a carpenter, was apprenticed to a wood-carver in 1884. He attended art schools in Oslo and Copenhagen and then spent several months in Paris in 1893.

  • Vigeland, Gustav (Norwegian sculptor)

    Gustav Vigeland, Norwegian sculptor who was best known for creating an outdoor sculpture complex in Frogner Park, Oslo. Vigeland, whose father was a carpenter, was apprenticed to a wood-carver in 1884. He attended art schools in Oslo and Copenhagen and then spent several months in Paris in 1893.

  • Vigenère cipher (cryptology)

    Vigenère cipher, type of substitution cipher invented by the 16th-century French cryptographer Blaise de Vigenère and used for data encryption in which the original plaintext structure is somewhat concealed in the ciphertext by using several different monoalphabetic substitution ciphers rather than

  • vigesimal number system (mathematics)

    numerals and numeral systems: Number bases: …with the decimal or the vigesimal system, where the base is 20. Similarly, the pure base six scale seems to occur only sparsely in northwest Africa and is otherwise combined with the duodecimal, or base 12, system.

  • Vigevano (Italy)

    Vigevano, town, Lombardia (Lombardy) region, northern Italy, on the right bank of the Ticino River, southwest of Milan. An old silk-manufacturing town, it was the site during the Renaissance of a hunting villa of the Sforza family, who built the arcaded Piazza Ducale (1494) and enlarged the former

  • Vigfússon, Gudbrandur (Icelandic linguist)

    Gudbrandur Vigfússon, one of the 19th century’s foremost scholars of Old Norse, who completed the Richard Cleasby Icelandic–English Dictionary (1874; 2nd ed., 1957) and published editions of a number of Icelandic sagas as well as the collection Corpus poeticum boreale (1883; “Body of Northern

  • vigil (religious rite)

    Wake, watch or vigil held over the body of a dead person before burial and sometimes accompanied by festivity; also, in England, a vigil kept in commemoration of the dedication of the parish church. The latter type of wake consisted of an all-night service of prayer and meditation in the church.

  • Vigil Day (religion)

    dietary law: Christianity: Vigils are single fast days that have been observed before certain feast days and other festivals. Rogation Days are the three days before Ascension Day and are marked by a fast preparatory to that festival; they seem to have been introduced after an earthquake that…

  • Vigil in the Night (film by Stevens [1940])

    George Stevens: Swing Time, Gunga Din, and Woman of the Year: Vigil in the Night (1940), from an A.J. Cronin novel, featured Carole Lombard as a nurse who dedicates her life to the poor denizens of a remote hospital ward after her sister (Anne Shirley), who is also a nurse, accidentally causes a patient’s death. The…

  • Vigil Strange I Kept on the Field One Night (poem by Whitman)

    Drum-Taps: …of the wounded informs “Vigil Strange I Kept on the Field One Night.”

  • vigilance (psychology)

    attention: Sustained attention: vigilance: Sustained attention, or vigilance, as it is more often called, refers to the state in which attention must be maintained over time. Often this is to be found in some form of “watchkeeping” activity when an observer, or listener, must continuously monitor a situation…

  • vigilante

    police: Early police in the United States: …Saxon tradition of frankpledge: the vigilante. In areas where a formal justice system had yet to be established or the rudimentary policing apparatus had proved inadequate in the face of rampant crime, it was not uncommon for citizens (called “regulators”) to band together in “committees of vigilance” to combat crime…

  • Vigilantes (police organization, San Francisco, California, United States)

    LaFayette Curry Baker: In 1856 he joined the San Francisco Vigilance Command (known as the Vigilantes), a group of self-appointed police whose operations were characterized by arbitrariness and lack of due process. In the next four years he was often employed in an undercover capacity and became adept at techniques of deception and…

  • vigiles (ancient Roman firemen)

    police: Ancient policing: …brigade into a corps of vigiles (firefighters and watchmen), consisting of seven squads, or cohorts, of 1,000 freedmen each. Each cohort was responsible for fire and, especially at night, police protection in two regiones. As a further measure to impose order on the often violent streets of Rome—a city of…

  • Vigilia (religious rite)

    Wake, watch or vigil held over the body of a dead person before burial and sometimes accompanied by festivity; also, in England, a vigil kept in commemoration of the dedication of the parish church. The latter type of wake consisted of an all-night service of prayer and meditation in the church.

  • Vigiliae (Italy)

    Bisceglie, town and episcopal see, Puglia (Apulia) regione, southeastern Italy. It lies along the Adriatic Sea and is about 120 miles (190 km) east-northeast of Naples. The Romans called the place Vigiliae, from the watchtowers that were used there in guarding the coast. The town was conquered by

  • Vigilius (pope)

    Vigilius, pope from 537 to 555, known for his major role in what later was called the “Three Chapters Controversy,” a complex theological dispute between the Eastern and Western churches. Vigilius, of noble birth, became a Roman deacon and was with Pope St. Agapetus I during the latter’s

  • Vigilius, Saint (Christian saint)

    Trento: Vigilius, converted Trentino and the southern Tirol to Christianity in the late 4th–early 5th century. The seat of a Lombard duchy and later of a Frankish march (borderland), it became a dominion of its prince-bishops in 1027 under Holy Roman imperial patronage and later became…

  • Viglietti, Daniel (Uruguayan musician)

    nueva canción: The formative years: the late 1950s through the ’60s: In Uruguay nueva cancíon musician Daniel Viglietti created songs that captured audiences not only across Latin America but also in France and Spain. In Cuba, Pablo Milanés, Silvio Rodríguez, and their colleagues at the national film institute pioneered the “protest music” that ultimately came to be called nueva trova (also…

  • Vigna (plant genus)

    bean: The genera Phaseolus and Vigna have several species each of well-known beans, though a number of economically important species can be found in various genera throughout the family. Rich in protein and providing moderate amounts of iron, thiamin, and riboflavin, beans are used worldwide for cooking in either fresh…

  • Vigna aconitifolia (plant)

    Fabales: Ecological and economic importance: Vigna aconitifolia (moth bean) and V. umbellata (rice bean) are much used in the tropics for forage and soil improvement, and their seeds are palatable and rich in protein. Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (winged bean) is collected in Southeast Asia for the edible fruits and protein-rich tubers. Pachyrhizus (yam…

  • Vigna angularis (plant)

    origins of agriculture: East Asia: The adzuki, or red, bean (Vigna angularis) may have become a crop first in Korea, where considerable quantities of beans larger than their wild counterpart have been found in association with 3,000-year-old soybeans. Both types of beans have been recovered from earlier sites in China, but…

  • Vigna subterranea (plant)

    Fabales: Ecological and economic importance: …family is Vigna subterranea (Bambara groundnut), a leguminous plant that develops underground fruits in the arid lands of Africa. Important too are the seeds of Bauhinia esculenta; they are gathered for the high-protein tubers and seeds. Vigna aconitifolia (moth bean) and V. umbellata (rice bean) are much used in…

  • Vigna umbellata (plant)

    Fabales: Ecological and economic importance: umbellata (rice bean) are much used in the tropics for forage and soil improvement, and their seeds are palatable and rich in protein. Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (winged bean) is collected in Southeast Asia for the edible fruits and protein-rich tubers. Pachyrhizus (yam bean) is a high-yield root…

  • Vigna unguiculata (plant)

    Cowpea, (Vigna unguiculata), annual plant within the pea family (Fabaceae) grown for its edible legumes. The plants are thought to be native to West Africa and are widely cultivated in warm regions around the world. In addition to their use as a protein-rich food crop, cowpeas are extensively grown

  • Vigna unguiculata catjang (plant)
  • Vigna unguiculata sinensis (plant)
  • Vigne, Godfrey Thomas (English traveler)

    Karakoram Range: Study and exploration: William Moorcroft, George Trebeck, and Godfrey Thomas Vigne plotted the locations of major rivers, glaciers, and mountains. The extraordinary topography, along with protracted military tensions in the Karakorams between Russia and Britain and more recently between China, Pakistan, and India, prompted many expeditions in the 19th and 20th centuries. Most…

  • Vigneaud, Vincent Du (American biochemist)

    Vincent du Vigneaud, American biochemist and winner of the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1955 for the isolation and synthesis of two pituitary hormones: vasopressin, which acts on the muscles of the blood vessels to cause elevation of blood pressure; and oxytocin, the principal agent causing

  • Vigneault, Gilles (Canadian songwriter and poet)

    Canadian literature: The Quiet Revolution: With chansonniers (singer-songwriters) such as Gilles Vigneault, the “Quebec song” became the poetry of the people. Fusing elements of traditional Quebec folk music with politically charged lyrics, the Quebec song gained new importance at this time for its role in sustaining political fervour and national pride. Vigneault’s music incorporated many…

  • Vignettes in Rhyme (work by Dobson)

    Austin Dobson: His first collection of poems, Vignettes in Rhyme (1873), was followed by Proverbs in Porcelain (1877). In these and in At the Sign of the Lyre (1885), Dobson showed the polish, wit, and restrained pathos that made his verses popular. After 1885 Dobson was chiefly occupied with biographical and critical…

  • Vignoble, Le (region, Switzerland)

    Neuchatel: …strip along the lake called Le Vignoble (from its vineyards); an intermediate region, Les Vallées, comprising the two principal valleys of the canton (the Ruz Valley, watered by the Seyon, and the Travers Valley, watered by L’Areuse), which lie at an elevation of 2,300 feet (700 metres); and the highest…

  • Vignola, Giacomo da (Italian architect)

    Giacomo da Vignola, architect who, with Andrea Palladio and Giulio Romano, dominated Italian Mannerist architectural design and stylistically anticipated the Baroque. After studying in Bologna, Vignola went to Rome in the 1530s and made drawings of the antiquities for a projected edition of

  • Vignoles, Charles (English engineer)

    railroad: Rail: An English engineer, Charles Vignoles, is credited with the invention of this design in the 1830s. A similar design also was developed by Robert L. Stevens, president of the Camden and Amboy Railroad in the United States.

  • Vignon, Claude (French artist)

    Western painting: France: …the exception of that of Claude Vignon, who exchanged his Mannerist training for a style based on Elsheimer and to a lesser extent Lastman, and who in the 1620s revealed a remarkable knowledge of the earliest paintings of Rembrandt. The return of Simon Vouet to Paris, however, marked the arrival…

  • Vignon, Pierre-Alexandre (French architect)

    Madeleine: …Magdalene, Paris church designed by Pierre-Alexandre Vignon in 1806. Together with the Arc de Triomphe (1806–08) and the Vend?me Column, the Madeleine is one of the monuments with which Napoleon sought to turn Paris into an imperial capital. Built in the form of a Roman temple surrounded by a Corinthian…

  • Vigny, Alfred-Victor, comte de (French author)

    Alfred-Victor, count de Vigny, poet, dramatist, and novelist who was the most philosophical of the French Romantic writers. Vigny was born into an aristocratic family that had been reduced to modest circumstances by the French Revolution. His father, a 60-year-old retired soldier at the time of his

  • Vigo (Spain)

    Vigo, port city and naval station, Pontevedra provincia (province), in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Galicia, northwestern Spain. Vigo is one of the largest and most important fishing ports in all of Europe and is known for its freezing and canning industry. Vigo lies along the

  • Vigo, Jean (French film director)

    Jean Vigo, French film director whose blending of lyricism with realism and Surrealism, the whole underlined with a cynical, anarchic approach to life, distinguished him as an original talent. Although he completed only three feature films and one short, Taris (1931), before his early death, his

  • Vigoda, Abe (American actor)

    Abe Vigoda, (Abraham Charles Vigoda), American character actor (born Feb. 24, 1921, New York, N.Y.—died Jan. 26, 2016, Woodland Park, N.J.), portrayed the disloyal and doomed mobster Sal Tessio in the seminal 1972 film The Godfather but was perhaps better known for his role (1974–77) as the hangdog

  • Vigoda, Abraham Charles (American actor)

    Abe Vigoda, (Abraham Charles Vigoda), American character actor (born Feb. 24, 1921, New York, N.Y.—died Jan. 26, 2016, Woodland Park, N.J.), portrayed the disloyal and doomed mobster Sal Tessio in the seminal 1972 film The Godfather but was perhaps better known for his role (1974–77) as the hangdog

  • vigraha (Hinduism)

    Pratima, (Sanskrit: “image” or “likeness” of a deity) in Hinduism, a sacred image or depiction of a deity. By depicting the deity with multiple heads, arms, or eyes or with animal features, the image, or icon, represents the deity’s many different aspects and powers. It serves as a vehicle through

  • Vigri, Caterina (Italian mystic)

    Saint Catherine of Bologna, ; canonized 1712; feast day May 9), Italian mystic and writer whose spiritual writings were popular in Italy until the end of the 18th century. Of noble birth, Catherine was educated at the Este court at Ferrara and entered the order in 1432. In 1456 she founded in

  • Vigri, Caterina (Italian mystic)

    Saint Catherine of Bologna, ; canonized 1712; feast day May 9), Italian mystic and writer whose spiritual writings were popular in Italy until the end of the 18th century. Of noble birth, Catherine was educated at the Este court at Ferrara and entered the order in 1432. In 1456 she founded in

  • viguier (French law)

    Provost, in French law, an inferior royal judge under the ancien régime, who, during the later Middle Ages, often served as an administrator of the domain. The position appears to date from the 11th century, when the Capetian dynasty of kings sought a means to render justice within their realm a

  • Vihār (state, India)

    Bihar, state of eastern India. It is bounded by Nepal to the north and by the Indian states of West Bengal to the northeast and Uttar Pradesh to the west. In November 2000 the new state of Jharkhand was created from Bihar’s southern provinces and now forms the state’s southern and southeastern

  • vihāra (Buddhist monastery)

    Vihara, early type of Buddhist monastery consisting of an open court surrounded by open cells accessible through an entrance porch. The viharas in India were originally constructed to shelter the monks during the rainy season, when it became difficult for them to lead the wanderer’s life. They took

  • vihāra (Mahāyāna Buddhism)

    Bhūmi, in Mahāyāna Buddhism, the stages of spiritual progress of the bodhisattva, or one who, though capable of enlightenment, delays his buddhahood in order to work for the salvation of others. The stages (which are also termed vihāras, “stations”) appear as 7, 10, and 13 in various texts, but

  • Vihāri (Pakistan)

    Vihāri, town, south-central Punjab province, Pakistan. The town lies on a flat alluvial plain bordered by the Sutlej River on the southeast. It is a market and processing centre for cotton and oilseeds. Wheat, rice, sugarcane, and vegetables are also grown nearby, and there are rice and flour mills

  • vihuela (musical instrument)

    Vihuela, stringed musical instrument that in Spanish Renaissance art music held the popularity accorded the lute elsewhere in Europe. Built like a large guitar, it had six, sometimes seven, double courses of strings tuned like the lute: G–c–f–a–d′–g′. (The guitar then had four double courses.) The

  • vihuela de mano (musical instrument)

    Vihuela, stringed musical instrument that in Spanish Renaissance art music held the popularity accorded the lute elsewhere in Europe. Built like a large guitar, it had six, sometimes seven, double courses of strings tuned like the lute: G–c–f–a–d′–g′. (The guitar then had four double courses.) The

  • VII Gemina Felix (Roman legion)

    Spain: Romanization: …Spain was limited to the VII Gemina Felix legion, stationed at Legio (León) in the north. Both that legion and the other auxiliary units in Spain seem to have been recruited increasingly from the peninsula itself, and recruits from Spain served throughout the Roman world, from Britain to Syria. From…

  • VII Olympiad, Games of the

    Antwerp 1920 Olympic Games, athletic festival held in Antwerp, Belg., that took place April 20–Sept. 12, 1920. The Antwerp Games were the sixth occurrence of the modern Olympic Games. The 1920 Olympics were awarded to Antwerp in hopes of bringing a spirit of renewal to Belgium, which had been

  • VII Olympic Winter Games

    Cortina d’Ampezzo 1956 Olympic Winter Games, athletic festival held in Cortina d’Ampezzo, Italy, that took place Jan. 26–Feb. 5, 1956. The Cortina d’Ampezzo Games were the seventh occurrence of the Winter Olympic Games. Originally awarded the 1944 Winter Games, which were canceled because of World

  • VII Photo Agency (international photo agency)

    James Nachtwey: …of the founding members of VII Photo Agency, named for the number of its founding members. He left that agency in 2011.

  • VIII Olympiad, Games of the

    Paris 1924 Olympic Games, athletic festival held in Paris that took place May 4–July 27, 1924. The Paris Games were the seventh occurrence of the modern Olympic Games. The 1924 Games represented a coming of age for the Olympics. Held in Paris in tribute to Pierre, baron de Coubertin, the retiring

  • VIII Olympic Winter Games

    Squaw Valley 1960 Olympic Winter Games, athletic festival held in Squaw Valley, Calif., U.S., that took place Feb. 18–28, 1960. The Squaw Valley Games were the eighth occurrence of the Winter Olympic Games. Squaw Valley was narrowly awarded the 1960 Winter Olympics, beating out Innsbruck, Austria,

  • Viipuri (Russia)

    Vyborg, city, Leningrad oblast (region), northwestern Russia. The city stands at the head of Vyborg Bay of the Gulf of Finland, 70 miles (113 km) northwest of St. Petersburg (formerly Leningrad). First settled in the 12th century, Vyborg was built as a fortress in 1293 by the Swedes after they had

  • Viipuri Municipal Library (library, Viipuri, Russia)

    Alvar Aalto: Early work: …sanatorium at Paimio, and the Municipal Library at Viipuri (now Vyborg, Russia). His plans for the last two were chosen in a competition, a common practice with public buildings in Finland. Both the office building and the sanatorium emphasize functional, straightforward design and are without historical stylistic references. They go…

  • Vijaya (Majapahit ruler)

    Majapahit empire: …founder of the empire was Vijaya, a prince of Singhasāri (q.v.), who escaped when Jayakatwang, the ruler of Ka?iri, seized the palace. In 1292 Mongol troops came to Java to avenge an insult to the emperor of China, Kublai Khan, by Kertanagara, the king of Singhasāri, who had been replaced…

  • Vijaya (king of Sri Lanka)

    Sri Lanka: Legendary origins: …on Sri Lanka were Prince Vijaya and his 700 followers, who landed on the west coast near Puttalam (5th century bce). They had been banished for misconduct from the kingdom of Sinhapura in northern India by Vijaya’s father, King Sinhabahu, who put them all in a ship and drove them…

  • Vijaya (Vijayanagar ruler)

    India: Wars and rivalries: …Devaraya’s two sons, Ramcandra and Vijaya, were disastrous. In a war against the Bahmanīs, many temples were destroyed, and Vijaya was forced to pay a huge indemnity. A combined invasion by the king of Orissa and the Velamas of Andhra resulted in the loss of the territories newly gained in…

  • Vijaya Dashami (Hindu celebration)

    Durga Puja: The celebrations end with Vijaya Dashami (“Tenth Day of Victory” ), when, amid loud chants and drumbeats, idols are carried in huge processions to local rivers, where they are immersed. That custom is symbolic of the departure of the deity to her home and to her husband, Shiva, in…

  • Vijayabahu (king of Sri Lanka)

    Anawrahta: …maintained diplomatic relations with King Vijayabāhu of Ceylon, who in 1071 requested the assistance of Burmese monks to help revive the Buddhist faith. The Ceylonese king sent Anawrahta a replica of the Buddha’s tooth relic, which was placed in the Shwezigon pagoda at Pagan.

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