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  • videography (photography)
  • videophone (telephone)

    Videophone, device that simultaneously transmits and receives both audio and video signals over telephone lines. In addition to the two-way speech transmission traditionally associated with the telephone, for many years there has been an interest in transmitting two-way video signals over telephone

  • VideoPhone 2500 (device)

    videophone: Digital videophone systems: In 1992 AT&T introduced the VideoPhone 2500, the world’s first colour videophone that could transmit over analog telephone lines. Unlike the earlier Picturephones, the VideoPhone 2500 employed digital compression methods to enable a significant reduction of the bandwidth required for full-motion video transmission. A V.34 modem was employed to transmit…

  • VIDEOPLACE (computer science)

    virtual reality: Entertainment: …of Krueger’s work, especially his VIDEOPLACE system, processed interactions between a participant’s digitized image and computer-generated graphical objects. VIDEOPLACE could analyze and process the user’s actions in the real world and translate them into interactions with the system’s virtual objects in various preprogrammed ways. Different modes of interaction with names…

  • videotape (recording media)

    Videotape, Magnetic tape used to record visual images and sound, or the recording itself. There are two types of videotape recorders, the transverse (or quad) and the helical. The transverse unit uses four heads rotating on an axis perpendicular to the direction in which the tape is fed. The

  • videotelephone (telephone)

    Videophone, device that simultaneously transmits and receives both audio and video signals over telephone lines. In addition to the two-way speech transmission traditionally associated with the telephone, for many years there has been an interest in transmitting two-way video signals over telephone

  • videotex (communications)

    Videotex, an electronic data-retrieval system in which usually textual information was transmitted via telephone or cable television lines and displayed on a television set or video display terminal. Videotex was originally designed in the early 1970s. It was an information-delivery system for the

  • Videvdat (Zoroastrian text)

    magus: …sections of the Vidēvdāt (Vendidad), probably derive from them. From the 1st century ad onward the word in its Syriac form (magusai) was applied to magicians and soothsayers, chiefly from Babylonia, with a reputation for the most varied forms of wisdom. As long as the Persian empire lasted there…

  • Vidhān Parishad (state government, India)

    India: State and local governments: …house, the Vidhan Parishad (Legislative Council), roughly comparable to the Rajya Sabha, with memberships that may not be more than one-third the size of the assemblies. In these councils, one-sixth of the members are nominated by the governor, and the remainder are elected by various categories of specially qualified…

  • Vidhān Sabhā (state government, India)

    India: State and local governments: …have a Vidhan Sabha (Legislative Assembly), popularly elected for terms of up to five years, while a small (and declining) number of states also have an upper house, the Vidhan Parishad (Legislative Council), roughly comparable to the Rajya Sabha, with memberships that may not be more than one-third the…

  • Vidhana Saudha (building, Bangalore, India)

    Bengaluru: The contemporary city: …buildings include the legislative building Vidhana Soudha (1956) and the High Court building Attara Kacheri (1867), which are situated across from one another. Also of note are the maharaja of Mysore’s palace, the Mysore Government Museum (1866), and Tippu Sultan’s fort and palace. Notable local scenic spots are the Lalbagh…

  • Vidhiviveka (work by Ma??ana-Mi?ra)

    Indian philosophy: The linguistic philosophies: Bhartrihari and Mandana-Mishra: … (“Establishment of Word Essence”), and Vidhiviveka (“Inquiry into the Nature of Injunctions”).

  • Vidicon (camera tube)

    television: Electron tubes: …the Image Orthicon, and the Vidicon. The operation of the camera tube is based on the photoconductive properties of certain materials and on electron beam scanning. These principles can be illustrated by a description of the Vidicon, one of the most enduring and versatile camera tubes. (See the diagram.)

  • Vidigueira, Vasco da Gama, 1er conde da (Portuguese navigator)

    Vasco da Gama, Portuguese navigator whose voyages to India (1497–99, 1502–03, 1524) opened up the sea route from western Europe to the East by way of the Cape of Good Hope. Da Gama was the third son of Estêv?o da Gama, a minor provincial nobleman who was commander of the fortress of Sines on the

  • Vidin (Bulgaria)

    Vidin, port town, extreme northwestern Bulgaria, on the Danube River. An agricultural and trade centre, Vidin has a fertile hinterland renowned for its wines and is the site of an annual fair. A regular ferry service connects it with Calafat, across the Danube in Romania. Vidin occupies the site of

  • Vidisa (India)

    Vidisha, city, west-central Madhya Pradesh state, central India. It lies just east of the Betwa River, about 20 miles (32 km) northeast of Bhopal. The city, originally called Besnagar and later dubbed Bhilsa (or Bhelsa), was renamed Vidisha in 1956. Vidisha is of great antiquity, being mentioned in

  • Vidisha (India)

    Vidisha, city, west-central Madhya Pradesh state, central India. It lies just east of the Betwa River, about 20 miles (32 km) northeast of Bhopal. The city, originally called Besnagar and later dubbed Bhilsa (or Bhelsa), was renamed Vidisha in 1956. Vidisha is of great antiquity, being mentioned in

  • Vidocq, Fran?ois-Eugène (French detective)

    Fran?ois Vidocq, adventurer and detective who helped create the police de s?reté (“security police”) in France. A venturesome, sometimes rash youth, Vidocq had bright beginnings in the army, fighting in the Battles of Valmy and Jemappes in 1792. After having spent several periods in prison, mostly

  • Vidolini da Bologna (Italian artist)

    Vitale da Bologna, Italian painter of the Bolognese school whose early 14th-century paintings in the International Gothic style show a marked Sienese influence. The first official record of Vitale was in Bologna, where he painted the Odofredi Chapel in the Church of San Francesco. During this p

  • Vidolino da Bologna (Italian artist)

    Vitale da Bologna, Italian painter of the Bolognese school whose early 14th-century paintings in the International Gothic style show a marked Sienese influence. The first official record of Vitale was in Bologna, where he painted the Odofredi Chapel in the Church of San Francesco. During this p

  • Vidor, Charles (American director)

    Charles Vidor, Hungarian-born American director who primarily made comedies and musicals but was best known for the film noir classic Gilda (1946). During World War I, Vidor served in the Austro-Hungarian army, rising to the rank of lieutenant. In the 1920s he worked at the UFA studio in Berlin and

  • Vidor, Károly (American director)

    Charles Vidor, Hungarian-born American director who primarily made comedies and musicals but was best known for the film noir classic Gilda (1946). During World War I, Vidor served in the Austro-Hungarian army, rising to the rank of lieutenant. In the 1920s he worked at the UFA studio in Berlin and

  • Vidor, King (American film director)

    King Vidor, American motion-picture director whose films of the 1920s and ’30s in both content and theme were among the most creative of those produced in Hollywood; they deal in relatively uncompromising terms with such themes as idealism and disillusionment in contemporary life. Among his widely

  • Vidor, King Wallis (American film director)

    King Vidor, American motion-picture director whose films of the 1920s and ’30s in both content and theme were among the most creative of those produced in Hollywood; they deal in relatively uncompromising terms with such themes as idealism and disillusionment in contemporary life. Among his widely

  • Vidova Mountain (mountain, Croatia)

    Bra?: …(780 m), is reached at Vidova Mountain, the highest point in the Adriatic islands. The main occupations of the inhabitants are fishing and agriculture; crops include figs, olives, almonds, and wine grapes. With insufficient fresh water, the island must be supplied from the mainland in summer. Mechanized quarrying of marble…

  • Vidri?, Vladimir (Croatian author)

    Croatian literature: …writers of that time include Vladimir Vidri? and Vladimir Nazor. The leading figure of the early Modernist phase until World War I was Antun Gustav Mato?. He edited the anthology Mlada hrvatska lirika (1914; “The Young Croatian Lyric”), which marked the zenith of such verse. Between the wars, avant-garde poetry…

  • Vidua (bird genus)

    weaver: ) Whydahs (Vidua) are social parasites that lay their eggs in the nests of other species of weavers, which then raise the whydahs’ young.

  • vidushaka (clown)

    South Asian arts: Classical theatre: The vidushaka (clown) is a noble, good-hearted, blundering fool, the trusted friend of the hero. A bald-headed glutton, comic in speech and manners, he is the darling of the spectators. With the decline of Sanskrit drama the folk theatre in various regional languages inherited the conventions…

  • Vidyādhara (Chandelā king)

    India: The Rajputs: Dhanga’s grandson Vidyadhara (reigned 1017–29), often described as the most powerful of the Candella kings, extended the kingdom as far as the Chambal and Narmada rivers. There he came into direct conflict with the Turkic conqueror Ma?mūd of Ghazna when the latter swept down from Afghanistan in…

  • Vidyapati (Indian writer and poet)

    Vidyapati, Maithili Brahman writer and poet, known for his many erudite Sanskrit works and also for his erotic poetry written in the Maithili language. He was the first writer to use Maithili as a literary language. Little detail is known of Vidyapati’s early life, though his status as a Brahman

  • Vidyapati (film by Bose [1937])

    Prithviraj Kapoor: …popular New Theatres film was Vidyapati (1937), Bose’s impressively mounted chronicle of the life of the court poet of the kingdom of Mithila (the area of ancient Videha, now Tirhut). In the late 1930s Kapoor was back in Bombay, where he starred in several successful melodramas produced by Chandulal Shah’s…

  • Vidyapati Thakur (Indian writer and poet)

    Vidyapati, Maithili Brahman writer and poet, known for his many erudite Sanskrit works and also for his erotic poetry written in the Maithili language. He was the first writer to use Maithili as a literary language. Little detail is known of Vidyapati’s early life, though his status as a Brahman

  • Vidyārāja (Buddhist deities)

    Myō-ō, in the Buddhist mythology of Japan, fierce protective deities, corresponding to the Sanskrit Vidyaraja (“King of Knowledge”), worshiped mainly by the Shingon sect. They take on a ferocious appearance in order to frighten away evil spirits and to destroy ignorance and ugly passions. They are

  • Vidyaranya (Hindu statesman and philosopher)

    Madhavacharya, Hindu statesman and philosopher. He lived at the court of Vijayanagar, a southern Indian kingdom. Madhavacharya became an ascetic in 1377 and was thereafter known as Vidyaranya. He was part author of Jivan-muktiviveka and Panchadashi, works of Vedanta philosophy; Dhatuvritti, a

  • Vidyasagar, Isvar Chandra (Indian educator)

    Isvar Chandra Vidyasagar, Indian educator and social reformer considered the father of Bengali prose. He was a brilliant student at Sanskrit College, Calcutta (now Kolkata), where he received the title Vidyasagar (“Ocean of Learning”), and in 1850 he was appointed head pandit (scholar-teacher) of

  • Vidyodaya Pirivena (university, Sri Lanka)

    Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte: The University of Sri Jayewardenepura, one of Sri Lanka’s premier institutions of higher learning, is located in the city. The university was originally founded in 1873 as Vidyodaya Pirivena, a Buddhist centre of learning, and attained university status in 1958; it took its current name in…

  • Vidzeme (region, Latvia)

    Vidzeme, plateau region of central Latvia, roughly corresponding to the historic state of Livonia. It is a hilly, irregular, partially terraced morainic area, dotted with many small morainal lakes. It reaches an elevation of 1,020 feet (311 m) at Mount Gaizi?? and is drained to the west by the G

  • Vie (artwork by Ozenfant)

    Amédée Ozenfant: …in the Purist style entitled Life.

  • Vie de Henri Brulard (work by Stendhal)

    The Life of Henry Brulard, unfinished autobiography by Stendhal, which he began writing in November 1835 and abandoned in March 1836. The scribbled manuscript, including the author’s sketches and diagrams, was deciphered and published as Vie de Henry Brulard in 1890, 48 years after its author’s

  • Vie de Jésus (work by Renan)

    rationalism: Four waves of religious rationalism: Renan’s Vie de Jésus (1863; Life of Jesus) did for France what Strauss’s book had done for Germany, though the two differed greatly in character. Whereas Strauss’s work had been an intellectual exercise in destructive criticism, Renan’s was an attempt to reconstruct the mind of Jesus as a wholly human…

  • Vie de M. Turgot (work by Condorcet)

    Marie-Jean-Antoine-Nicolas de Caritat, marquis de Condorcet: Condorcet published his Vie de M. Turgot in 1786 and his Vie de Voltaire in 1789. Those biographies of his friends reveal his sympathy with Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot’s economic theories about mitigating the suffering of the French populace before the French Revolution and with Voltaire’s opposition to the church.…

  • Vie de Marianne, La (work by Marivaux)

    Pierre Marivaux: La Vie de Marianne (1731–41), which preceded Samuel Richardson’s Pamela (1740), anticipates the novel of sensibility in its glorification of a woman’s feelings and intuition. Le Paysan parvenu (1734–35; “The Fortunate Peasant”) is the story of a handsome opportunistic young peasant who uses his attractiveness…

  • Vie de saint Thomas Becket (work by Guernes)

    Guernes de Pont-Sainte-Maxence: Guernes wrote his Vie de saint Thomas Becket (composed in verse c. 1174) from Latin sources; in order to check some conflicting facts, he visited Canterbury, where, it was said, he would often read his work to the companies of pilgrims visiting the martyr’s tomb.

  • Vie de St. Fran?ois d’Assise (work by Sabatier)

    Paul Sabatier: Sabatier’s Vie de St. Fran?ois d’Assise (1893), which showed little regard for historical objectivity, enjoyed an immediate success and ran through more than 40 editions during its author’s lifetime.

  • Vie de St. Léger (French literature)

    French language: History: …Passion du Christ and the Vie de St. Léger) seem to mingle northern and southern dialect features, while another (the “Jonas fragment”) is obviously from the far north. In the 12th century the “gem” of the epic poems known as chansons de geste, La Chanson de Roland, was written. One…

  • Vie de Voltaire (work by Condorcet)

    Marie-Jean-Antoine-Nicolas de Caritat, marquis de Condorcet: Turgot in 1786 and his Vie de Voltaire in 1789. Those biographies of his friends reveal his sympathy with Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot’s economic theories about mitigating the suffering of the French populace before the French Revolution and with Voltaire’s opposition to the church. Both works were widely and eagerly read and…

  • Vie des abeilles, La (work by Maeterlinck)

    Maurice Maeterlinck: …La Vie des abeilles (1901; The Life of the Bee) and L’Intelligence des fleurs (1907; The Intelligence of Flowers), in which Maeterlinck sets out his philosophy of the human condition. Maeterlinck was made a count by the Belgian king in 1932.

  • Vie devant soi, La (film by Mizrahi [1977])
  • Vie en rose, La (film by Dahan [2007])

    Marion Cotillard: …M?me (2007; also released as La Vie en rose) propelled her to international fame.

  • Vie en rose, La (popular song)

    Marlene Dietrich: …Love Again,” “Lili Marleen,” “La Vie en rose,” and “Give Me the Man” made them classics of an era. Her many affairs with both men and women were open secrets, but rather than destroying her career they seemed to enhance it. Her adoption of trousers and other mannish clothes…

  • Vie est à nous, La (film by Renoir)

    Jean Renoir: Early years: …codirected the communist propaganda film La Vie est à nous (The People of France). The same year, he recaptured the flavour of his early works with a short film, Une Partie de campagne (released 1946; A Day in the Country), which he finished with great difficulty. A masterpiece of impressionist…

  • Vie et aventures de Salavin (work by Duhamel)

    Georges Duhamel: The Salavin cycle describes the frustrations and perplexities of a “little man” of the 20th century trying to work out his own salvation with no religious faith to sustain him. In the Pasquier cycle, Duhamel relates the history of a French middle-class family from the 1880s…

  • Vie et mort d’un étang (work by Gevers)

    Marie Gevers: …novels Madame Orpha (1933) and Vie et mort d’un étang (1961; “Life and Death of a Pond”).

  • Vie et mort du roi boiteux, La (work by Ronfard)

    Canadian literature: Contemporary trends: …moment in Quebec theatre with La Vie et mort du roi boiteux (1981; “The Life and Death of the Lame King”), a six-play cycle whose performance in 1982 lasted more than 10 hours and treated its spectators to a parodic look at the works of Shakespeare and other great authors…

  • Vie inestimable du grand Gargantua, La (work by Rabelais)

    Fran?ois Rabelais: Life.: La vie inestimable du grand Gargantua (“The Inestimable Life of the Great Gargantua”) belongs to this period. The second edition is dated 1535; the first edition was probably published in 1534, though it lacks the title page in the only known copy. In Gargantua Rabelais…

  • Vie moderne, La (French periodical)

    édouard Manet: Later life and works: …the offices of the periodical La Vie moderne (Modern Life), but his legs were already affected by a malady that was to prove fatal. In 1881 he rented a villa at Versailles, and, by the following year, with his illness progressing at an alarming pace, he went to stay in…

  • Vie privée (film by Malle [1962])

    Brigitte Bardot: …privée (1962; “The Private Life,” A Very Private Affair), Le Mépris (1963; Contempt), Viva Maria! (1965), Dear Brigitte (1965), and Masculin-Féminin (1966; Masculine Feminine). With her career waning, Bardot appeared in her final films in 1973 and subsequently retired.

  • Vie sans joie, Une (work by Thackeray)

    William Makepeace Thackeray: Early writings: …fantasy of soldiering in India; Catherine (1839–40), a burlesque of the popular “Newgate novels” of romanticized crime and low life, and itself a good realistic crime story; The History of Samuel Titmarsh and the Great Hoggarty Diamond (1841), which was an earlier version of the young married life described in…

  • Vie, poésies et pensées de Joseph Delorme (work by Sainte-Beuve)

    Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve: Early life and Romantic period: …volumes of his own poetry, Vie, poésies et pensées de Joseph Delorme (1829; “The Life, Poetry, and Thought of Joseph Delorme”) and Les Consolations (1830), which on their publication attracted some attention—not least because of their deliberate flatness and apparent uncouthness, much in contrast to the grander manner of Hugo…

  • Vie, Une (work by Maupassant)

    Guy de Maupassant: Mature life and works: …his novel Une Vie (1883; A Woman’s Life). This book, which sympathetically treats its heroine’s journey from innocent girlhood through the disillusionment of an unfortunate marriage and ends with her subsequent widowhood, records what Maupassant had observed as a child, the little dramas and daily preoccupations of ordinary people. He…

  • Vie: mode d’emploi, La (work by Perec)

    Georges Perec: …La Vie: mode d’emploi (1978; Life: A User’s Manual), which describes each unit in a large Parisian apartment building and relates the stories of its inhabitants.

  • Viedma (Argentina)

    Viedma, city, capital of Río Negro provincia (province), south-central Argentina. It lies along the western bank of the Negro River 20 miles (32 km) from the river’s mouth at the Atlantic Ocean, opposite Carmen de Patagones in Buenos Aires province. A fort called Mercedes de Patagones, built there

  • Viehb?ck, Franz (Austrian electrical engineer and cosmonaut)

    Franz Viehb?ck, Austrian electrical engineer and cosmonaut, the first Austrian to go into space. Viehb?ck graduated from the Vienna University of Technology with a master’s degree in electrical and electronic engineering and later earned a doctorate in electronic engineering. He was an assistant

  • Viehb?ck, Franz Artur (Austrian electrical engineer and cosmonaut)

    Franz Viehb?ck, Austrian electrical engineer and cosmonaut, the first Austrian to go into space. Viehb?ck graduated from the Vienna University of Technology with a master’s degree in electrical and electronic engineering and later earned a doctorate in electronic engineering. He was an assistant

  • Vieil Homme, Le (play by Porto-Riche)

    Georges de Porto-Riche: (1891), Le Passé (1897), and Le Vieil Homme (1911), all of which examine the eternal triangle of the wife, the husband, and the lover. The so-called théatre d’amour that Porto-Riche innovated was highly influential and was much imitated for some years. He was elected to the Académie Fran?aise in 1923.

  • Vieille Charité, Hospice de la (building, Marseille, France)

    Marseille: The city layout: Nearby is the Old Charity Hospital (Hospice de la Vieille Charité), built between 1660 and 1750. The interior courtyard surrounds a chapel by Pierre Puget, regarded as the most powerful of French Baroque sculptors. Close by is the H?tel Dieu, the oldest hospital in the city, built at…

  • Vieille, Paul (French chemist)

    Paul Vieille, French scientist, known for his invention of smokeless powder. After studying with the chemist Marcellin Berthelot, Vieille collaborated with him in researches that led to important discoveries of the physics of shock waves (1881). He then undertook to solve the problem of harnessing

  • Vieille, Paul-Marie-Eugène (French chemist)

    Paul Vieille, French scientist, known for his invention of smokeless powder. After studying with the chemist Marcellin Berthelot, Vieille collaborated with him in researches that led to important discoveries of the physics of shock waves (1881). He then undertook to solve the problem of harnessing

  • Vieilles Chansons du pays Imérina (work by Rabéarivelo)

    Jean-Joseph Rabéarivelo: A final collection of poems, Vieilles Chansons du pays Imérina (“Old Songs of the Imerina Country”), published two years after his death, is based on poetic love dialogues (hain-teny) adapted from Malagasy vernacular tradition.

  • Vieira da Cruz, Tomaz (Portuguese poet, musician and journalist)

    Tomaz Vieira da Cruz, Portuguese poet, musician, and journalist best known for the poems he dedicated to the woman he called his “bronze flower.” His poetry evokes Angolan and African themes of beauty, drama, love, and misfortune. Vieira da Cruz was reared and educated in Portugal, where he became

  • Vieira da Silva, Maria Elena (French artist)

    Maria Elena Vieira da Silva, Portuguese-born French painter of intricate, semiabstract compositions. Vieira da Silva moved to Paris in 1928, where she studied sculpture first with Antoine Bourdelle and later with Charles Despiau. She studied painting with Fernand Léger and engraving with Stanley

  • Vieira da Silva, Marta (Brazilian athlete)

    Marta, Brazilian athlete who is widely considered the greatest female football (soccer) player of all time. Marta was a six-time winner of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) World Player of the Year award (2006–10 and 2018). Prevented from playing football with her male

  • Vieira de Mello, Sérgio (Brazilian diplomat)

    Sérgio Vieira de Mello, Brazilian diplomat (born March 15, 1948, Rio de Janeiro, Braz.—died Aug. 19, 2003, Baghdad, Iraq), dedicated his life to attempting to bring peace, assisting refugees, and aiding humanitarian relief in many of the most volatile trouble spots all over the world. For over 30 y

  • Vieira, António (Portuguese author and diplomat)

    António Vieira, Jesuit missionary, orator, diplomat, and master of classical Portuguese prose who played an active role in both Portuguese and Brazilian history. His sermons, letters, and state papers provide a valuable index to the climate of opinion of the 17th-century world. Vieira went to

  • Vieira, Jo?o Bernardo (president of Guinea-Bissau)

    Jo?o Bernardo Vieira, (“Nino”), Guinea-Bissauan politician (born April 27, 1939, Bissau, Portuguese Guinea [now Guinea-Bissau]—died March 2, 2009, Bissau), was president (1980–99 and 2005–09) of his country, but ethnic tensions, rivalries within the ruling African Party for the Independence of

  • Vieira, Jo?o Fernandes (Brazilian landowner)

    Brazil: Dutch and French incursions: Jo?o Fernandes Vieira, a wealthy plantation owner, subsequently launched a rebellion that steadily gained ground against John Maurice’s incompetent successors. The Brazilians, acting without Portuguese aid, defeated and expelled the Dutch in 1654, an achievement that helped spark Brazilian nationalistic sentiments.

  • Vieira, José Luandino (Angolan author)

    José Luandino Vieira, Angolan writer of short fiction and novels. Vieira immigrated with his parents to Angola in 1938, living in and around the musseques (African quarters) of Luanda. His writings reflect the fusion of Kimbundu (the language of the Mbundu people) and a variety of Portuguese that

  • Vieira, Meredith (American television journalist)

    Meredith Vieira, American television personality and journalist, best known as coanchor (2006–11) of the morning news and talk program Today and as host (2002–13) of the game show Who Wants to Be a Millionaire. She was also a cohost (1997–2006) of the daily talk show The View, and she later hosted

  • Viejo (volcano, Nicaragua)

    Nicaragua: Relief: The highest volcanoes include San Cristóbal (5,840 feet [1,780 metres]), Concepción (5,282 feet [1,610 metres]), and Momotombo (4,199 feet [1,280 metres]).

  • viejo (festival character)

    Latin American dance: Puerto Rico: …a symbol of Spain), the viejo (one who wears rags, symbol of the common man), and the loca (men dressed as women who traditionally swept filth from the streets).

  • Viejo, El (Spanish painter)

    Francisco Herrera, the Elder, Spanish painter and engraver whose works mark the transition from Mannerism to Baroque. Herrera is said to have been for a short time the master of Diego Velázquez, and he has been claimed as the originator of a new national style that culminated in the achievements of

  • Viele, Egbert Ludovicus (French poet)

    Francis Viélé-Griffin, American-born French poet who became an important figure in the French Symbolist movement. Viélé-Griffin, son of a military governor for the Union in the American Civil War, was sent to France at the age of eight to attend school and remained there for the rest of his life.

  • Viélé-Griffin, Francis (French poet)

    Francis Viélé-Griffin, American-born French poet who became an important figure in the French Symbolist movement. Viélé-Griffin, son of a military governor for the Union in the American Civil War, was sent to France at the age of eight to attend school and remained there for the rest of his life.

  • vielle (lute)

    Fiddle, medieval European bowed, stringed musical instrument. The medieval fiddle, a forerunner of the violin, emerged in 10th-century Europe, possibly deriving from the lira, a Byzantine version of the rabāb, an Arab bowed instrument. Medieval fiddles varied in size and shape but c

  • vielle a roue (musical instrument)

    Hurdy-gurdy, squat, pear-shaped fiddle having strings that are sounded not by a bow but by the rosined rim of a wooden wheel turned by a handle at the instrument’s end. Notes are made on the one or two melody strings by stopping them with short wooden keys pressed by the left-hand fingers. Up to

  • Vien Chan, kingdom of (historical state, Laos)

    Thailand: The early Chakri kings and a resurgent Siam: …young Lao ruler of the kingdom of Vien Chan (Vientiane). In 1827 Siamese armies razed and plundered Vientiane; thousands of Lao were taken prisoner and deported to central Siam.

  • Vien, Joseph-Marie (French painter)

    Jacques-Louis David: Formative years: …placed in the studio of Joseph-Marie Vien, a history painter who catered to the growing Greco-Roman taste without quite abandoning the light sentiment and the eroticism that had been fashionable earlier in the century. At age 18, the obviously gifted budding artist was enrolled in the school of the Royal…

  • Viénet, René (French filmmaker and Sinologist)

    Situationist International: …disbanding, the filmmaker and Sinologist René Viénet’s La Dialectique peut-elle casser des briques? (1973; Can Dialectics Break Bricks?) serves as a prime example of détournement in action. Viénet took an already existing Hong Kong martial arts film and replaced its dialogue, changing the meaning of the original story into a…

  • Vienna (national capital, Austria)

    Vienna, city and Bundesland (federal state), the capital of Austria. Of the country’s nine states, Vienna is the smallest in area but the largest in population. Modern Vienna has undergone several historical incarnations. From 1558 to 1918 it was an imperial city—until 1806 the seat of the Holy

  • Vienna Award (Europe [1940])

    Hungary: War and renewed defeat: northern Transylvania under the “Second Vienna Award” (August 30). They then allowed German troops to cross Hungarian territory into southern Romania and in November signed the Tripartite Pact.

  • Vienna Award (Europe [1938])

    Czechoslovak history: The breakup of the republic: By the Vienna Award (Nov. 2, 1938), Hungary was granted one-quarter of Slovak and Ruthenian territories. By all these amputations Czechoslovakia lost about one-third of its population, and the country was rendered defenseless.

  • Vienna Basin (region, Austria)

    Nieder?sterreich: The Vienna Basin, a lowland area lying immediately east of Vienna, contains Austria’s richest and most productive farmland. Vienna itself is bordered on the west by the well-known Vienna Woods (Wienerwald). The southern part of the Bundesland includes parts of the Central Alps with heights exceeding…

  • Vienna Boys’ Choir (Austrian music group)

    Vienna: Music and theatre: The Vienna Boys’ Choir, founded in 1498 (Haydn and Schubert were its most famous boy members), sings on Sunday mornings at the mass in the Hofburg Chapel. The Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra gives frequent Saturday afternoon and Sunday morning concerts and also performs during the week at…

  • Vienna Catholic Academy

    Theodor Innitzer: In 1945 he founded the Vienna Catholic Academy for the training of the laity.

  • Vienna Circle (philosophy)

    Vienna Circle, a group of philosophers, scientists, and mathematicians formed in the 1920s that met regularly in Vienna to investigate scientific language and scientific methodology. The philosophical movement associated with the Circle has been called variously logical positivism, logical e

  • Vienna Codex (pre-Columbian manuscript)

    codex: Among these codices are the Vienna Codex, the Codex Colombino, and the Codex Fejérváry-Mayer, all believed to have been produced before the Spanish conquest of the region. Certain collections of formulas or standards are also referred to as codices; for example, the Codex Alimentarius and the British Pharmaceutical Codex.

  • Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (1985)

    environmental law: Historical development: The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (1985), for example, did not specify the measures that signatory states were required to adopt to protect human health and the environment from the effects of ozone depletion, nor did it mention any of the substances…

  • Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations (international relations)

    ambassador: The Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations (1961) reduced to three the categories of diplomatic representatives, which are: (1) ambassadors and other heads of mission of equivalent rank who are accredited to the host heads of state; (2) envoys extraordinary, ministers plenipotentiary, and other representatives who are…

  • Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (international agreement)

    Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, an international agreement governing treaties between states that was drafted by the International Law Commission of the United Nations and adopted on May 23, 1969, and that entered into force on January 27, 1980. A convention governing international

  • Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties Between States and International Organizations or Between International Organizations (international agreement)

    international law: Treaties: …treaties between states, and the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties Between States and International Organizations or Between International Organizations (1986).

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