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  • very large-scale integration (electronics)

    computer science: Algorithms and complexity: Similarly, in very-large-scale integration (VLSI) chip design it is important to know whether the graph representing a circuit is planar, that is, whether it can be drawn in two dimensions without any links crossing (wires touching).

  • Very Long Baseline Array (astronomy)

    radio telescope: Radio telescope arrays: The Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) consists of ten 25-metre (82-foot) dishes spread across the United States from the Virgin Islands to Hawaii. The VLBA operates at wavelengths from 3 mm (0.1 inch) to 1 metre (3 feet) and is used to study quasars, galactic nuclei,…

  • very long baseline interferometry (astronomy)

    radio telescope: Very long baseline interferometry: In conventional interferometers and arrays, coaxial cable, waveguide, or even fibre-optic links are used to distribute a common local-oscillator reference signal to each antenna and also to return the received signal from an individual antenna to a central laboratory where it…

  • Very Long Engagement, A (film by Jeunet [2004])

    Marion Cotillard: …Long Dimanche de fian?ailles (2004; A Very Long Engagement). While that film and the Taxi series cemented Cotillard’s star status in her own country, she became known to American audiences with her turn in American director Tim Burton’s Big Fish (2003), in which she had a small but memorable role.…

  • very low frequency (frequency band)

    telecommunications media: The radio-frequency spectrum: …from very low frequency (VLF), starting at 3 kilohertz, and extending to extremely high frequency (EHF), ending at 300 gigahertz.

  • Very Private Affair, A (film by Malle [1962])

    Brigitte Bardot: …privée (1962; “The Private Life,” A Very Private Affair), Le Mépris (1963; Contempt), Viva Maria! (1965), Dear Brigitte (1965), and Masculin-Féminin (1966; Masculine Feminine). With her career waning, Bardot appeared in her final films in 1973 and subsequently retired.

  • very small aperture terminal (telecommunications)

    telecommunications media: Satellite links: In the very small aperture terminal (VSAT) network, used mainly for commercial data communication, GEO satellites serve as the central relay between a terrestrial hub and a wide-area network of small and inexpensive terrestrial transceivers with dish antennas as small as 40 cm (16 inches) in diameter.…

  • Very, Jones (American poet and mystic)

    Jones Very, American Transcendentalist poet and Christian mystic. Very was born into a seafaring family. In his youth he sailed with his father, a master seaman, visiting such distant places as Russia and New Orleans. Very was educated at Harvard College and Harvard Divinity School (1834–38). At

  • very-high-frequency (communications)

    VHF, conventionally defined portion of the electromagnetic spectrum including any radiation with a wavelength between 1 and 10 metres and a frequency between 300 and 30 megahertz. VHF signals are widely employed for television and radio transmissions. In the United States and Canada, television

  • very-high-frequency omnidirectional radio range (communications)

    radio range: (VOR) has been developed in various forms since about 1930. It transmits two signals simultaneously in all directions. Operating in the very high frequency (VHF) range, it is less subject than the lower-frequency radio range to disturbances by day-night alternation, weather, and other causes. The…

  • very-long-chain fatty acid (chemical compound)

    metabolic disease: Peroxisomal disorders: …role in the catabolism of very-long-chain fatty acids and other compounds through the process of beta-oxidation. They also are critical in the biosynthesis of important cellular membrane constituents (plasmalogens), cholesterol, and bile acids. Unlike mitochondria, peroxisomes do not contain DNA, therefore all of the components of their enzyme systems and…

  • very-low-calorie diet

    therapeutics: Obesity: …of these diets is the very-low-calorie diet (VLCD) that results in rapid fat loss while minimizing the loss of lean muscle tissue. These diets require supplementation with potassium and a vitamin-mineral complex. Fad diets that eliminate one foodstuff, such as carbohydrate or protein, may give short-term results but fail in…

  • very-low-density lipoprotein (physiology)

    lipid: Very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL): VLDL is a lipoprotein class synthesized by the liver that is analogous to the chylomicrons secreted by the intestine. Its purpose is also to deliver triglycerides, cholesteryl esters, and cholesterol to peripheral tissues. VLDL is largely depleted of its triglyceride content…

  • Verzamelde opstellen (work by Deyssel)

    Lodewijk van Deyssel: …critical writings were published as Verzamelde opstellen, 11 vol. (1894–1911; “Collected Essays”). He began writing as an admirer of émile Zola and published a naturalistic novel, Een liefde (1887; “A Love Affair”). Later he abandoned naturalism and wrote highly personal impressionistic prose and clever, somewhat overwrought “prose-verses.” A sensitive artist…

  • Verzauberung, Die (novel by Broch)

    The Spell, allegorical novel by Hermann Broch, published posthumously in 1953 as Der Versucher. It was the only completed volume of a projected trilogy to have been called Bergroman (“Mountain Novel”). The author wrote it in the mid-1930s and then, dissatisfied, completely rewrote it twice more; by

  • Verzelini, Jacopo (Italian craftsman)

    fa?on de Venise: …de Venise; a Venetian émigré, Jacopo Verzelini (1522–1606), produced it in London from 1573 and was granted a royal privilege for glassmaking in 1575. He had been preceded by eight Venetian workers who had established themselves in London in 1545. At Antwerp, Venetian influence was strong and the glass industry…

  • verzuiling (religion)

    Netherlands: Religion: …separation of society into “pillars” (zuilen) identified with the different Dutch religions. Calvinist Protestantism became the officially recognized religion of the country, politically favoured and economically supported by government. But the Reformed preachers were thwarted in their efforts to oppress or drive out other religions, to which a far-reaching…

  • Vesaas, Tarjei (Norwegian author)

    Tarjei Vesaas, Norwegian novelist and short-story writer whose symbolic and allegorical narratives won him much recognition in Norway and other European countries. A writer since 1923, Vesaas first experienced significant success with his two novels about life on a Norwegian farm, Det store spelet

  • Vesak (Buddhist festival)

    Wesak, most important of the Theravada Buddhist festivals, commemorating the birth, enlightenment, and death of the Buddha. The event is observed on the full-moon day of the lunar month Vesakha, which falls in April or May. The day is observed as a public holiday in many Southeast Asian countries.

  • Vesakha (Buddhist festival)

    Wesak, most important of the Theravada Buddhist festivals, commemorating the birth, enlightenment, and death of the Buddha. The event is observed on the full-moon day of the lunar month Vesakha, which falls in April or May. The day is observed as a public holiday in many Southeast Asian countries.

  • Vesali (ancient city, India)

    Vaishali, city of ancient India, north of Patna, northwestern Bihar state, on the Gandak River. In antiquity Vaishali was the capital of the Licchavi republic and was closely associated with the early histories of both Buddhism and Jainism. Roads connected it with Rajagriha to the south and

  • Vesalius, Andreas (Belgian physician)

    Andreas Vesalius, Renaissance physician who revolutionized the study of biology and the practice of medicine by his careful description of the anatomy of the human body. Basing his observations on dissections he made himself, he wrote and illustrated the first comprehensive textbook of anatomy.

  • Vescera (Algeria)

    Biskra, town, northeastern Algeria, on the northern edge of the Sahara. It is the centre of the Zab (Ziban) group of oases south of a wide, open depression between the Aurès Massif and the Tell Atlas Mountains. On the site of Vescera, a fortified Roman post, Biskra prospered after Arab conquest in

  • Vesco, Robert L. (American financier)

    Robert L. Vesco, American financier, once considered the boy wonder of international finance, who later became a fugitive from U.S. and other legal authorities. He was a key figure in several American financial and political scandals of the early 1970s. The son of a Detroit autoworker, Vesco left

  • Vesco, Robert Lee (American financier)

    Robert L. Vesco, American financier, once considered the boy wonder of international finance, who later became a fugitive from U.S. and other legal authorities. He was a key figure in several American financial and political scandals of the early 1970s. The son of a Detroit autoworker, Vesco left

  • Vesey, Denmark (American freed slave and insurrectionist)

    Denmark Vesey, self-educated black who planned the most extensive slave revolt in U.S. history (Charleston, 1822). Sold as a boy in 1781 to a Bermuda slaver captain named Joseph Vesey, young Denmark, who assumed his master’s surname, accompanied him on numerous voyages and in 1783 settled with his

  • Vesey-Fitzgerald, William (British politician)

    Arthur Wellesley, 1st duke of Wellington: Years as prime minister: …by-election in Clare, Ireland, where William Vesey-Fitzgerald, Huskisson’s ministerial successor, defending his seat, was defeated by Daniel O’Connell, the Irish Catholic leader. The defeat of Vesey-Fitzgerald, a popular pro-Catholic, carried an alarming moral for the duke: until Emancipation was granted, no Tory would win in southern Ireland. There might well…

  • Veshniye vody (novella by Turgenev)

    Torrents of Spring, novella by Ivan Turgenev, published in Russian as Veshniye vody in 1872. The book has also been translated as Spring Torrents and Spring Freshets. Cast as a reminiscence, the work concerns the reflections of the middle-aged and world-weary Sanin on his youthful romance with

  • vesical artery (anatomy)

    renal system: Blood and nerve supplies: The superior vesical artery supplies the dome of the bladder, and one of its branches (in males) gives off the artery to the ductus deferens, a part of the passageway for sperm. The middle vesical artery supplies the base of the bladder. The inferior vesical artery supplies…

  • vesical schistosomiasis (disease)

    schistosomiasis: (3) Vesical, or urinary, schistosomiasis is caused by S. haematobium, found throughout Africa and the Middle East.

  • vesicle (anatomy)

    Golgi apparatus: and lipids into vesicles for delivery to targeted destinations. It is located in the cytoplasm next to the endoplasmic reticulum and near the cell nucleus. While many types of cells contain only one or several Golgi apparatus, plant cells can contain hundreds.

  • vesicle (igneous rock)

    igneous rock: Small-scale structural features: Such openings are called vesicles, and the rocks in which they occur are said to be vesicular. Where the openings lie close together and form a large part of the containing rock, they impart to it a slaglike, or scoriaceous, structure. Their relative abundance is even greater in the…

  • vesicle (blister)

    blister: Blisters are classified as vesicles if they are 0.5 cm (0.2 inch) or less in diameter and as bullae if they are larger. Blisters can commonly result from pressure and friction on sites such as the palms or soles; they are produced when friction causes an upper skin layer…

  • vesicular exanthema of swine (animal disease)

    Vesicular exanthema of swine, viral disease of swine causing eruption of painful blisters on feet and snout. Blisters emerge 24 to 72 hours after exposure and are accompanied by fever, which lasts 24 to 36 hours and may occur again after two or three days. The signs resemble those of

  • vesicular infection (pathology)

    athlete's foot: Symptoms: In vesicular infections, the raised, erythematous leading edge of the rash contains vesicles (small fluid-filled blisters) or bullae (large fluid-filled blisters), which are a sign of acute inflammation. The presence of pus indicates secondary bacterial infection.

  • vesicular stomatitis (domestic animal disease)

    Vesicular stomatitis, viral disease causing blisters in the mouths of cattle, horses, and mules and on the snouts and feet of swine. Horses and cattle with vesicular stomatitis become feverish two to five days after exposure. After the blisters break, the fever subsides, and the animal usually

  • vesicular stomatitis virus (infectious agent)

    virus: Disease: …infected cell is the negative-strand vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) of the family Rhabdoviridae; viral RNA newly synthesized by infectious VSV rapidly shuts off cellular RNA synthesis and, to a somewhat lesser extent, cellular protein synthesis. In both poliovirus and VSV, the infected cell dies within hours of the inhibition of…

  • vesicular transport model (biology)

    Golgi apparatus: The vesicular transport model, for example, stems from initial studies that identified vesicles in association with the Golgi apparatus. This model is based on the idea that vesicles bud off and fuse to cisternae membranes, thus moving molecules from one cisterna to the next; budding vesicles…

  • vesiculitis (pathology)

    Vesiculitis, inflammation and infection of the seminal vesicles in the male reproductive tract. The seminal vesicles are ductlike glands that add fluid secretions to the seminal fluid as it passes from the body during intercourse. Infections present in the prostate or related organs usually

  • Vesiculovirus (virus genus)

    virus: Annotated classification: Genera that infect animals are Vesiculovirus, which includes the virus that causes vesicular stomatitis in cattle, swine, and equines, and Lyssavirus, which includes the causative agent of rabies. Family Filoviridae Enveloped virions, variably elongated filaments 650–1,400 nm in length and pleomorphic

  • Vesivirus (virus genus)

    calicivirus: contains four genera: Lagovirus, Vesivirus, Sapovirus, and Norovirus (Norwalk-like viruses). Type species of this family include Vesicular exanthema of swine virus, Norwalk virus, and Sapporo virus. Species of Norovirus frequently give rise to outbreaks of foodborne and waterborne gastroenteritis in humans.

  • Vesnin brothers (Russian architects)

    Vesnin brothers, architectural partnership of three brothers who individually and as a team contributed significantly to the development of Russian and Soviet architecture. The brothers were Leonid Aleksandrovich Vesnin (b. Nov. 28 [Dec. 10, New Style], 1880, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia—d. Oct. 8,

  • Vesnin, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich (Russian architect)

    Vesnin brothers: …the youngest of the brothers, Aleksandr, had begun to head up their collaboration, and it was Aleksandr who became known as the founder and (in French architect Le Corbusier’s description) “spiritual father of Russian Constructivism.”

  • Vesnin, Leonid Aleksandrovich (Russian architect)

    Vesnin brothers: Leonid, the oldest of the brothers, attended the Academy of Arts in St. Petersburg (1900–09), while the other two brothers graduated from a construction school later reorganized as the Moscow Practical Construction Institute and the St. Petersburg Institute of Civil Engineers (1901–12). Their collaborative and…

  • Vesnin, Viktor Aleksandrovich (Russian architect)

    Vesnin brothers: The middle brother, Viktor, besides his collaboration with his brothers, is primarily known as the designer of industrial structures, the most important of which was the Dnieper River’s first hydroelectric power station (1927–32).

  • Vesoul (France)

    Vesoul, town, capital of Haute-Sa?ne département, Bourgogne-Franche-Comté région, eastern France. It lies between the isolated conical hill La Motte (1,263 feet [384 metres]) and the Durgeon River. The hill is crowned by a votive chapel and a statue of the Virgin Mary. Vesoul is of ancient origin,

  • Vespa (wasp genus)

    wasp: …species of the genera Polistes, Vespa, and Vespula. Many are large and aggressive and are equipped with formidable stings. Some Vespula species are called yellow jackets owing to the black and yellow bands on their abdomen. Species of Vespa are called hornets, which are mostly black, with yellowish markings on…

  • Vespa (motor scooter)

    Italy: Industrial growth: …machines, inexpensive motor scooters (the Vespa and the Lambretta), and cars (from economical Fiats to luxury makes such as Maserati, Lamborghini, and Alfa Romeo). Italian firms became famous for their combination of elegant design and inexpensive production techniques. An extraordinary network of superhighways was constructed across Italy. The country was…

  • Vespasian (Roman emperor)

    Vespasian, Roman emperor (ad 69–79) who, though of humble birth, became the founder of the Flavian dynasty after the civil wars that followed Nero’s death in 68. His fiscal reforms and consolidation of the empire generated political stability and a vast Roman building program. Vespasian was the son

  • Vespasian Psalter (religious manuscript)

    biblical literature: Old English versions: The Vespasian Psalter is the outstanding surviving example of that technique from the 9th century. In the next century the Lindisfarne Gospels, written in Latin circa 700, were glossed in Old English circa 950.

  • Vespasianus, Titus Flavius (Roman emperor)

    Titus, Roman emperor (79–81), and the conqueror of Jerusalem in 70. After service in Britain and Germany, Titus commanded a legion under his father, Vespasian, in Judaea (67). Following the emperor Nero’s death in June 68, Titus was energetic in promoting his father’s candidacy for the imperial

  • Vesper (Greco-Roman mythology)

    Hesperus, in Greco-Roman mythology, the evening star; although initially considered to be the son of Eos (the Dawn) and the Titan Astraeus, he was later said to be the son or brother of Atlas. He was later identified with the morning star, Phosphorus, or Eosphorus (Latin: Lucifer), the bringer of

  • vesper bat (mammal)

    Vesper bat, (family Vespertilionidae), large family of bats numbering more than 400 species. They are found worldwide in both tropical and temperate regions, their habitats ranging from tropical forest to desert. Vesper bats have small eyes and well-developed tails. Most species have long wings,

  • Vesper Chimes (Christian evangelical group)

    The Way International, Christian evangelical group founded in 1942 as Vesper Chimes, a radio ministry broadcast from Lima, Ohio, by Victor Paul Wierwille (1916–85). Its current headquarters are in New Knoxville, Ohio; estimates of its membership range from 3,000 to 20,000. As a minister in the

  • vesper sparrow (bird)

    sparrow: …sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) and the vesper sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus), finely streaked birds of grassy fields; the song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) and the fox sparrow (Passerella iliaca), heavily streaked skulkers in woodlands; and the white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys) and the white-throated sparrow (Z. albicollis), larger

  • Vespers (work by Monteverdi)

    canonical hours: With Claudio Monteverdi’s Vespers (1610), a new style emerges. Orchestrally inspired church services revolutionized the polyphonic tradition of ecclesiastical music.

  • vespers (religious liturgy)

    Vespers, evening prayer of thanksgiving and praise in Roman Catholic and certain other Christian liturgies. Vespers and lauds (morning prayer) are the oldest and most important of the traditional liturgy of the hours. Many scholars believe vespers is based on Judaic forms of prayer and point to a

  • Vespertilio murinus (mammal)

    Frosted bat, any of certain bat species of the family vesper bat

  • vespertilionid bat (mammal)

    Vesper bat, (family Vespertilionidae), large family of bats numbering more than 400 species. They are found worldwide in both tropical and temperate regions, their habitats ranging from tropical forest to desert. Vesper bats have small eyes and well-developed tails. Most species have long wings,

  • Vespertilionidae (mammal)

    Vesper bat, (family Vespertilionidae), large family of bats numbering more than 400 species. They are found worldwide in both tropical and temperate regions, their habitats ranging from tropical forest to desert. Vesper bats have small eyes and well-developed tails. Most species have long wings,

  • Vespertine (album by Bjork)

    Bj?rk: …released the quiet and hypnotic Vespertine. Her first studio album in four years, it refrained from pushing the musical boundaries that had made her a star of the 1990s and instead focused on a more rhythmic, contemplative intimacy. Medúlla (2004) was an all-vocals and vocal samples-based album that featured beatboxers…

  • Vespidae (wasp family)

    wasp: …1,000 species within the family Vespidae (superfamily Vespoidea) and include the hornets and yellow jackets (yellowjackets). They differ from other wasp families in having their wings folded longitudinally when at rest.

  • Vespinae (insect)

    hymenopteran: Social forms: …the Polistinae (paper wasps) and Vespinae (e.g., yellow jackets) use paperlike coverings, which they construct by gnawing wood particles from structures such as fences, telephone poles, and barn doors. This is then kneaded together with saliva to form a little ball. After returning to the nest, insects roll the balls…

  • vespoid wasp (wasp superfamily)

    wasp: …within the family Vespidae (superfamily Vespoidea) and include the hornets and yellow jackets (yellowjackets). They differ from other wasp families in having their wings folded longitudinally when at rest.

  • Vespoidea (wasp superfamily)

    wasp: …within the family Vespidae (superfamily Vespoidea) and include the hornets and yellow jackets (yellowjackets). They differ from other wasp families in having their wings folded longitudinally when at rest.

  • Vespro della Beata Vergine (work by Monteverdi)

    canonical hours: With Claudio Monteverdi’s Vespers (1610), a new style emerges. Orchestrally inspired church services revolutionized the polyphonic tradition of ecclesiastical music.

  • Vespucci, Amerigo (Italian navigator)

    Amerigo Vespucci, merchant and explorer-navigator who took part in early voyages to the New World (1499–1500, 1501–02) and occupied the influential post of piloto mayor (“master navigator”) in Sevilla (1508–12). The name for the Americas is derived from his given name. Vespucci was the son of

  • Vespula (insect genus)

    wasp: …the genera Polistes, Vespa, and Vespula. Many are large and aggressive and are equipped with formidable stings. Some Vespula species are called yellow jackets owing to the black and yellow bands on their abdomen. Species of Vespa are called hornets, which are mostly black, with yellowish markings on the face,…

  • Vessantara (Buddha)

    Vessantara, in Buddhist mythology, a previous incarnation of the Buddha Gotama. A crown prince, Vessantara was famous for his vast generosity, and, to the despair of his more practical-minded father, he accepted banishment to the forest, where he attained the ultimate self-abnegation by giving away

  • vessel (plant anatomy)

    Vessel, in botany, the most specialized and efficient conducting structure of xylem (fluid-conducting tissues). Characteristic of most flowering plants and absent from most gymnosperms and ferns, vessels are thought to have evolved from tracheids (a primitive form of water-conducting cell) by loss

  • vessel cell (plant anatomy)

    lower vascular plant: Cells of the vascular system: Vessel cells, which have evolved in several lines of fern evolution and are the principal water-conducting cell type of flowering plants, are modified tracheids in which the end walls have lost their primary membranes, thus providing direct, unimpeded connections for water transport between the cells.…

  • vessel element (plant anatomy)

    lower vascular plant: Cells of the vascular system: Vessel cells, which have evolved in several lines of fern evolution and are the principal water-conducting cell type of flowering plants, are modified tracheids in which the end walls have lost their primary membranes, thus providing direct, unimpeded connections for water transport between the cells.…

  • vessel flute (musical instrument)

    Vessel flute, musical instrument, an aerophone with a closed, spherically shaped body and a blow hole and sometimes with finger holes. In Africa many vessel flutes are made from gourds or shells; pottery bodies are found in China and Latin America. Ocarinas are often considered globular flutes, but

  • vessel traffic centre

    traffic control: New concepts: …meet the goals of the vessel traffic centre (to manage traffic) and the ship (to move through the area) by integrating space management, position fixing, track monitoring, and collision avoidance. The vessel traffic centre (VTC) coordinates ship passage in an area so as to be orderly and predictable. Position fixing…

  • vessel traffic system

    traffic control: New concepts: …systems are integrated in a vessel traffic system (VTS), which can be defined as an assortment of personnel, procedures, equipment, and regulations assembled for the purpose of traffic management in a given body of water. A VTS includes some means of area surveillance, traffic separation, vessel movement reporting, a traffic…

  • Vessey, John W. (American military officer)

    John W. Vessey, (John William Vessey, Jr.), American military officer (born June 29, 1922, Minneapolis, Minn.—died Aug. 18, 2016, North Oaks, Minn.), rose through the ranks in a 46-year military career that began with his 1939 enlistment in the Minnesota National Guard to become a four-star general

  • Vessey, John William, Jr. (American military officer)

    John W. Vessey, (John William Vessey, Jr.), American military officer (born June 29, 1922, Minneapolis, Minn.—died Aug. 18, 2016, North Oaks, Minn.), rose through the ranks in a 46-year military career that began with his 1939 enlistment in the Minnesota National Guard to become a four-star general

  • Vessy Bridge (bridge, Vessy, Switzerland)

    bridge: Maillart’s innovations: Some of his last bridges—at Vessy, Liesberg, and Lachen—illustrate his mature vision for the possibilities of structural art. Over the Arve River at Vessy in 1935, Maillart designed a three-hinged, hollow-box arch in which the thin cross-walls taper at mid-height, forming an X shape. This striking design, giving life to…

  • vest (clothing)

    suit: …a vest (later called a waistcoat in England), an undergarment almost identical to the coat.

  • Vest Fjord (fjord, Norway)

    Vest Fjord, fjord, in the Norwegian Sea off the northwestern coast of Norway. Formed by the Norwegian mainland to the east and the Lofoten islands to the north and west, Vest Fjord is about 100 miles (160 km) long and almost 50 miles (80 km) wide at its mouth, becoming narrower toward its head. The

  • Vesta (Roman goddess)

    Vesta, in Roman religion, goddess of the hearth, identified with the Greek Hestia. The lack of an easy source of fire in the early Roman community placed a special premium on the ever-burning hearth fire, both publicly and privately maintained; thus, from the earliest times Vesta was assured of a

  • Vesta (asteroid)

    Vesta, second largest—and the brightest—asteroid of the asteroid belt and the fourth such object to be discovered, by the German astronomer and physician Wilhelm Olbers on March 29, 1807. It is named for the ancient Roman goddess of the hearth (the Greek Hestia). Vesta revolves around the Sun once

  • Vesta (ship)

    yacht: Transatlantic racing and global circumnavigation: 6-metre length: Fleetwing, Vesta, and Henrietta. Henrietta, owned by the American newspaper publisher James Gordon Bennett, won in 13 days of sailing. The first single-sailor transatlantic voyage was made in a 6-metre boat by Alfred Johnson in 1876 to commemorate the centenary of U.S. independence. The first single-handed…

  • Vesta, Temple of (ancient temple, Rome, Italy)

    construction: Early concrete structures: …this concrete construction is the Temple of the Sybil (or Temple of Vesta) at Tivoli, built during the 1st century bce. This temple has a circular plan with a peristyle of stone columns and lintels around the outside, but the wall of the circular cella, or sanctuary room, inside is…

  • Vestal Virgins (Roman religion)

    Vestal Virgins, in Roman religion, six priestesses, representing the daughters of the royal house, who tended the state cult of Vesta, the goddess of the hearth. The cult is believed to date to the 7th century bc; like other non-Christian cults, it was banned in ad 394 by Theodosius I. Chosen

  • Vestal Virgins, Temple of the (ancient temple, Rome, Italy)

    construction: Early concrete structures: …this concrete construction is the Temple of the Sybil (or Temple of Vesta) at Tivoli, built during the 1st century bce. This temple has a circular plan with a peristyle of stone columns and lintels around the outside, but the wall of the circular cella, or sanctuary room, inside is…

  • vestale, La (opera by Spontini)

    Gaspare Spontini: …early operas, notably his masterpiece, La vestale (1807), represent the spirit of the Napoleonic era and form an operatic bridge between the works of Christoph Gluck and Richard Wagner.

  • Vestalia (Roman religion)

    Vesta: …a year, however, on the Vestalia (June 7–15), it was opened to matrons who visited it barefoot.

  • Vestdijk, Simon (Dutch writer)

    Simon Vestdijk, prolific Dutch writer whose early novels, with their unrelenting exposure of the barrenness of middle-class provincial life, shocked the bourgeois world of the 1930s. The cerebral, intellectual approach that characterizes Vestdijk’s writing was already apparent in his poetry, with

  • Veste (castle, Coburg, Germany)

    Coburg: …because of its strongly fortified Veste, or castle, situated on a busy trade route. Martin Luther resided there in 1530, and during the 17th century the castle successfully withstood several sieges in the Thirty Years’ War.

  • Vested Interests and the Common Man: The Modern Point of View and the New Order, The (work by Veblen)

    Thorstein Veblen: Later works and career: …published in book form as The Vested Interests and the State of the Industrial Arts (1919; republished as The Vested Interests and the Common Man: The Modern Point of View and the New Order). Another series of articles that appeared in The Dial was later published in the book The…

  • Vested Interests and the State of the Industrial Arts, The (work by Veblen)

    Thorstein Veblen: Later works and career: …published in book form as The Vested Interests and the State of the Industrial Arts (1919; republished as The Vested Interests and the Common Man: The Modern Point of View and the New Order). Another series of articles that appeared in The Dial was later published in the book The…

  • vested-rights doctrine (law)

    conflict of laws: Historical development: ” This vested-rights doctrine maintained that, once a right was created in one locale, its existence should be recognized everywhere. Classic theories of conflicts law used a number of connecting factors to determine the territorially applicable law. In matters of family law, Anglo-American law used the parties’…

  • Vester?len (island group, Norway)

    Vester?len, island group, in the Norwegian Sea, northern Norway. Forming the northern end of the Lofoten-Vester?len archipelago, the Vester?len include, from east to west, Hinn Island (largest Norwegian island but for Spitsbergen), And Island, and Lang Island; important smaller islands are Gryt

  • Vestfjorden (fjord, Norway)

    Vest Fjord, fjord, in the Norwegian Sea off the northwestern coast of Norway. Formed by the Norwegian mainland to the east and the Lofoten islands to the north and west, Vest Fjord is about 100 miles (160 km) long and almost 50 miles (80 km) wide at its mouth, becoming narrower toward its head. The

  • Vestiaria coccinea (bird)

    Iiwi, (species Vestiaria coccinea), Hawaiian songbird, one of the commoner members of the Hawaiian honeycreeper family, Drepanididae, order Passeriformes. A nectar-feeder, named for its squeaky call (“ee-ee-vee”), it is 15 cm (6 inches) long, with a red body, black wings with small white patches,

  • Vestiarian controversy (English religious history)

    adiaphorism: In England the Vestiarian controversy in the 1560s and ’70s dealt with the question of whether clerical vestments—declared to be “popish” by some—were theologically important.

  • vestibular apparatus (anatomy)

    Vestibular system, apparatus of the inner ear involved in balance. The vestibular system consists of two structures of the bony labyrinth of the inner ear, the vestibule and the semicircular canals, and the structures of the membranous labyrinth contained within them. The two membranous sacs of the

  • vestibular aqueduct (anatomy)

    human ear: Semicircular canals: …of a canal called the vestibular aqueduct, which opens into the cranial cavity. The other end of the horizontal canal has a separate opening into the vestibule. Thus, the vestibule completes the circle for each of the semicircular canals.

  • vestibular fold (anatomy)

    vocal cord: The ventricular folds, located just above the vocal cords, are sometimes termed false vocal cords because they are not involved in voice production.

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