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  • Verneuil, Edouard de (French paleontologist)

    geochronology: Completion of the Phanerozoic time scale: …traveled with the French paleontologist Edouard de Verneuil and the Latvian-born geologist Alexandr Keyserling to study the rock succession of the eastern Russian platform, the area of Russia west of the Ural Mountains. Near the town of Perm, Murchison and Verneuil identified fossiliferous strata containing both Carboniferous and a younger…

  • Verney, Luís António (Portuguese theologian and philosopher)

    Portuguese literature: The 18th century: …of the theologian and philosopher Luís António Verney) poured scorn on prevailing methods of education in Veradeiro método de estudar (1746; “True Method of Studying”). Matias Aires, who studied science in Spain and France, returned to Portugal to write Reflex?es sobre a vaidade (1752; “Reflections on Vanity”), a philosophical and…

  • verni rug

    Verné rug, handmade Caucasian floor covering that was formerly termed a sileh. It is usually woven in two pieces joined at the middle, with a design composed of squarish compartments, usually in horizonal rows of two per panel. Within the squares are large backward S-shaped figures, representing

  • Vernichtungskrieg. Verbrechen der Wehrmacht 1941 bis 1944 (German art exhibit)

    Wehrmacht: War crimes and the myth of the clean Wehrmacht: A 1995–99 art exhibition titled “Vernichtungskrieg. Verbrechen der Wehrmacht 1941 bis 1944” (“War of Annihilation: Crimes of the Wehrmacht 1941–44”) triggered a massive reappraisal of the role of the Wehrmacht in World War II. The controversial exhibit toured 33 cities in Germany and Austria and was viewed by more than…

  • Vernichtungslager (Nazi concentration camp)

    Extermination camp, Nazi German concentration camp that specialized in the mass annihilation (Vernichtung) of unwanted persons in the Third Reich and conquered territories. The camps’ victims were mostly Jews but also included Roma (Gypsies), Slavs, homosexuals, alleged mental defectives, and

  • vernier caliper (measurement instrument)

    Vernier caliper, instrument for making very accurate linear measurements introduced in 1631 by Pierre Vernier of France. It utilizes two graduated scales: a main scale similar to that on a ruler and an especially graduated auxiliary scale, the vernier, that slides parallel to the main scale and

  • Vernier, Pierre (French mathematician)

    Pierre Vernier, French mathematician and government official who is best remembered for his invention of the vernier caliper, an instrument for making accurate linear measurements. Taught by his scientist-father, Claude Vernier, he developed an early interest in measuring instruments. During his

  • Vernio, Giovanni Bardi, conte di (Italian musician, writer, and scientist)

    Giovanni Bardi, conte di Vernio, musician, writer, and scientist, influential in the evolution of opera. About 1573 he founded the Florentine Camerata, a group that sought to revive ancient Greek music and drama. Among the members were the theorist Vincenzo Galilei (father of Galileo) and the

  • vernis Martin (lacquer technique)

    Vernis Martin, lustrous lacquer substitute widely used in the 18th century to decorate furniture and such personal articles as brisé fans and snuffboxes. The process of adding bronze or gold powder to green varnish was perfected by the Martin family (q.v.), hence its name vernis Martin (“Martin

  • vernis mou (art)

    printmaking: Soft-ground etching: Soft-ground etching is basically the same as hard-ground etching except that the ground contains about one-third grease, which keeps it in a semihard, or tacky, condition.

  • Vernon (British Columbia, Canada)

    Vernon, city, southern British Columbia, Canada. It lies in Okanagan Lake country, 274 miles (441 km) northeast of Vancouver. Pioneers called the early settlement Priest’s Valley because of a missionary outpost maintained there by Paul Durieu. It was also known as Forge Valley (for its

  • Vernon Civic Complex (Vernon, British Columbia, Canada)

    Vernon: …it is dominated by the Vernon Civic Complex (opened 1966), comprising the City Hall, museum, library, fire and police buildings, and Convention Hall. Inc. 1892. Pop. (2006) 35,979; (2011) 38,150.

  • Vernon, Dai (Canadian magician and sleight-of-hand artist)

    Dai Vernon, Canadian magician and sleight-of-hand artist who was one of the 20th century’s most renowned practitioners of “up-close” magic and card tricks. Fascinated with magic from age six, he decided to become a professional conjurer while attending the Royal Military College of Canada. When he

  • Vernon, Edward (British admiral)

    United Kingdom: Walpole’s loss of power: Admiral Edward Vernon became a popular and Opposition hero when he captured the Spanish settlement of Portobelo (in what is now Panama) in November 1739. But his victory was followed by several defeats, and Britain soon became embroiled in a wider European conflict, the War of…

  • Vernon, Florida (film by Morris [1981])

    Errol Morris: …followed it with another documentary, Vernon, Florida (1981), focusing on the eccentric residents of the titular town.

  • Vernon, Gary Wayne, Jr. (American musician)

    Rascal Flatts: The members were lead vocalist Gary LeVox (original name Gary Wayne Vernon, Jr.; b. July 10, 1970, Columbus, Ohio, U.S.), bassist Jay DeMarcus (in full Stanley Wayne DeMarcus, Jr.; b. April 26, 1971, Columbus), and guitarist Joe Don Rooney (b. September 13, 1975, Baxter Springs, Kansas).

  • Vernon, John (Canadian actor)

    Point Blank: …his partner Mal Reese (John Vernon) and left for dead. Walker returns to the mainland and remorselessly and violently works his way through the corporate criminal organization so he can kill Reese and get his money back.

  • Vernon, Justin (American musician)

    Pitchfork Music Festival: …Pitchfork and Bon Iver frontman Justin Vernon.

  • Vernon, Lillian (German-born American entrepreneur)

    Lillian Vernon, (Lilli Menasche), German-born American entrepreneur (born March 18, 1927, Leipzig, Ger.—died Dec. 14, 2015, New York, N.Y.), created a direct-marketing catalog business that at its peak, in the 1990s, processed 4.8 million orders that came from nine different catalogs, 15 outlet

  • Vernon, Philip E. (Canadian psychologist)

    human intelligence: Psychometric theories: …unresolved, other psychologists—such as Canadian Philip E. Vernon and American Raymond B. Cattell—have suggested that both were right in some respects. Vernon and Cattell viewed intellectual abilities as hierarchical, with g, or general ability, located at the top of the hierarchy. But below g are levels of gradually narrowing abilities,…

  • Vernonia (plant)

    Ironweed, any of about 500 species of perennial plants constituting the genus Vernonia of the family Asteraceae. Small herbaceous species are distributed throughout the world, while shrubs and trees are native primarily to tropical regions. Members of the genus have lance-shaped, toothed leaves

  • Vernonia School District 47J v. Acton (law case)

    Vernonia School District 47J v. Acton, case in which the U.S. Supreme Court on June 26, 1995, ruled (6–3) that an Oregon school board’s random drug-testing policy for student athletes was reasonable under the Fourth Amendment. In response to concerns about increased drug use among students, the

  • Vernunft und Existenz (work by Jaspers)

    Karl Jaspers: Conflict with the Nazi authorities: …entitled Vernunft und Existenz (Reason and Existenz, 1955), appeared; in 1936 a book on Nietzsche; in 1937 an essay on Descartes; in 1938 a further work preliminary to his logic, entitled Existenzphilosophie (Philosophy of Existence, 1971). Unlike many other famous intellectuals of that time, he was not prepared to…

  • Vernünftige Gedanken (work by Wolff)

    Christian, baron von Wolff: …all beginning under the title Vernünftige Gedanken (“Rational Ideas”) covered many subjects and expounded Leibniz’s theories in popular form. Wolff emphasized that every occurrence must have an adequate reason for happening or there arises the impossible alternative that something might come out of nothing. He applied the thought of the…

  • vernünftigen Tadlerinnen, Die (German journal)

    Johann Christoph Gottsched: …and 1726, Gottsched had published Die vernünftigen Tadlerinnen (“The Reasonable Female Critics”), a journal aimed at improving the intellectual and moral standards of women. A second journal, Der Biedermann (1727–29; “The Honest Man”), undertook the broader task of introducing the new rationalist creed to German letters. In 1730 he brought…

  • Verny (Kazakhstan)

    Almaty, city, southeastern Kazakhstan. It was formerly the capital of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic (1929–91) and of independent Kazakhstan (1991–97). Almaty lies in the northern foothills of the Trans-Ili Alatau at an elevation of 2,300–3,000 feet (700–900 metres), where the Bolshaya and

  • vero amico, Il (work by Goldoni)

    Carlo Goldoni: …in commedia dell’arte style; and Il vero amico (“The True Friend”), an Italian comedy of manners.

  • Véroia (Greece)

    Véroia, dímos (municipality) and commercial centre of Greek Macedonia (Modern Greek: Makedonía), Central Macedonia (Kendrikí Makedonía) periféreia (region), northern Greece. It lies on a plateau at the western edge of the Thessaloníki (Salonika) plain, at the eastern foot of the Vérmio (also

  • Véron, Louis Désiré (French publisher and journalist)

    history of publishing: Continental Europe and other countries: …prominent contemporary of Girardin was Louis-Désiré Véron, who founded the Revue de Paris (1829) and revived the liberal daily Le Constitutionnel (1835). Aspiring French authors could gain publicity for their literary talents in these papers, especially when the Tanguy Law (1850) made it compulsory for them to sign the articles…

  • Verona (Italy)

    Verona, city, episcopal see, Veneto regione, northern Italy. It lies at the foot of the Lessini Mountains, 65 miles (105 km) west of Venice, and is half-encircled by the Adige River. The city was founded by an ancient tribe (possibly the Euganei or Raeti) and was later occupied by the Gallic

  • Verona illustrata (work by Maffei)

    Francesco Scipione, marchese di Maffei: …Verona illustrata, 4 volumes (1731–32; A Compleat History of the Ancient Amphitheatres and in particular that of Verona).

  • Verona, Congress of (European history)

    Congress of Verona, (Oct. 20–Dec. 14, 1822), the last of the meetings held by the European powers in accordance with the terms of the Quadruple Alliance (1815) between Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Great Britain. Held at Verona, the congress was also the last effective manifestation of the Holy

  • Verona, Giocondo da (Italian architect)

    Fra Giovanni Giocondo, Italian humanist, architect, and engineer, whose designs and written works signal the transition in architectural modes from early to high Renaissance. A learned Franciscan, Fra Giocondo is said to have received an extensive humanistic education. He made an important

  • Verona, League of (Italian history)

    Italy: Northern Italy: …Grado, who organized the anti-imperial League of Verona. When Victor IV died in 1164, Rainald of Dassel arranged for the election of the strongly imperial Paschal III (antipope 1164–68) as a rival to Alexander III. But Alexander also faced difficulties. The controversy between King Henry II of England and Archbishop…

  • Veronese school (Italian painting)

    Altichiero: …the effective founder of the Veronese school and perhaps the most significant northern Italian artist of the 14th century.

  • Veronese, Paolo (Italian painter)

    Paolo Veronese, one of the major painters of the 16th-century Venetian school. His works usually are huge, vastly peopled canvases depicting allegorical, biblical, or historical subjects in splendid colour and set in a framework of classicizing Renaissance architecture. A master of the use of

  • Veronica (plant)

    Speedwell, any plant of the genus Veronica (order Lamiales), especially the small, sometimes weedy, herbaceous types. There are about 450 species, which are found mostly in the Northern Hemisphere. Speedwells are grown as ornamentals. Their small blossoms are usually white, blue, purple, or

  • veronica (bullfighting)

    bullfighting: Act one: …usually performing the basic two-handed veronica (named after St. Veronica, who, according to Christian legend, wiped Christ’s brow with a cloth as he passed by on his way to Golgotha). The veronica is the basic pass from which nearly all other passes derive. A series of veronicas is usually ended…

  • Veronica, Saint (Christian saint)

    St. Veronica, ; feast day July 12), renowned legendary woman who, moved by the sight of Christ carrying his cross to Golgotha, gave him her kerchief to wipe his brow, after which he handed it back imprinted with the image of his face. In Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism, Lutheranism, and certain

  • Veronica, St. (Christian saint)

    St. Veronica, ; feast day July 12), renowned legendary woman who, moved by the sight of Christ carrying his cross to Golgotha, gave him her kerchief to wipe his brow, after which he handed it back imprinted with the image of his face. In Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism, Lutheranism, and certain

  • Veronica, Veil of (relic)

    Shroud of Turin: …Turin is distinct from the Veil of Veronica, which is depicted in the Stations of the Cross as a piece of fabric that was imprinted with Christ’s face during his walk to Golgotha (see St. Veronica).

  • Veronicellidae (gastropod family)

    gastropod: Classification: …(Onchidiidae), terrestrial and herbivorous (Veronicellidae), or terrestrial and carnivorous (Rathouisiidae); about 200 species. Superorder Basommatophora Mantle cavity present; eyes at base of 1 pair of tentacles; male and female gonopore separate, usually on right side of body; shell conical to patelliform; mostly freshwater but a few land and marine…

  • Veronika decide morrer (novel by Coelho)

    Paulo Coelho: …included Veronika decide morrer (1998; Veronika Decides to Die), which mines the perceived mental instability of his youth; O dem?nio e a Se?orita Prym (2000; The Devil and Miss Prym), an investigation of the essential nature of humankind; and Onze minutos (2003; Eleven Minutes), which explores the boundaries between love…

  • Veronika Decides to Die (novel by Coelho)

    Paulo Coelho: …included Veronika decide morrer (1998; Veronika Decides to Die), which mines the perceived mental instability of his youth; O dem?nio e a Se?orita Prym (2000; The Devil and Miss Prym), an investigation of the essential nature of humankind; and Onze minutos (2003; Eleven Minutes), which explores the boundaries between love…

  • Verpa (fungus)

    cup fungus: The bell morel (Verpa), an edible mushroom with a bell-shaped cap, is found in woods and in old orchards in early spring. Most species of Gyromitra, a genus of false morels, are poisonous. G. brunnea is edible, however, and is found in sandy soils or woods.

  • Verrà la morte e avrà i tuoi occhi (work by Pavese)

    Cesare Pavese: …to contain his best poetry, Verrà la morte e avrà i tuoi occhi (1951; “Death Will Stare at Me out of Your Eyes”); the story collection Notte di festa (1953; Festival Night and Other Stories, 1964); and the striking chronicle of his inner life, Il mestiere di vivere, diario 1935–1950…

  • Verrazano, Giovanni da (Italian navigator)

    Giovanni da Verrazzano, Italian navigator and explorer for France who was the first European to sight New York and Narragansett bays. After his education in Florence, Verrazzano moved to Dieppe, France, and entered that nation’s maritime service. He made several voyages to the Levant, and in 1523

  • Verrazano-Narrows Bridge (bridge, New York City, New York, United States)

    Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge, suspension bridge spanning New York Harbor from Brooklyn to Staten Island, built by Othmar H. Ammann from 1959 to 1964. Its 1,298-metre (4,260-foot) main span was, until the completion of the Humber Bridge in 1981, the longest in the world. The double-decked six-lane-wide

  • Verrazzano, Giovanni da (Italian navigator)

    Giovanni da Verrazzano, Italian navigator and explorer for France who was the first European to sight New York and Narragansett bays. After his education in Florence, Verrazzano moved to Dieppe, France, and entered that nation’s maritime service. He made several voyages to the Levant, and in 1523

  • Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge (bridge, New York City, New York, United States)

    Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge, suspension bridge spanning New York Harbor from Brooklyn to Staten Island, built by Othmar H. Ammann from 1959 to 1964. Its 1,298-metre (4,260-foot) main span was, until the completion of the Humber Bridge in 1981, the longest in the world. The double-decked six-lane-wide

  • verre églomisé (glass)

    Verre églomisé, (French: “Glomyized glass”), glass engraved on the back that has been covered by unfired painting or, usually, gold or silver leaf. The method owes its name to Jean-Baptiste Glomy (d. 1786), a French picture framer who used the process in glass mounts. The technique derives from

  • Verreaux’s eagle (bird)

    eagle: Verreaux’s eagle (Aquila verreauxii) is an uncommon bird of eastern and southern Africa. It is black with white rump and wing patches. It reaches about 80 cm (31 inches) in length, and it subsists mainly on hyraxes.Seebateleur; golden eagle.

  • Verreaux’s sifaka (primate)

    sifaka: Verreaux’s sifaka (P. verreauxi) is white with dark shoulders and sides, sometimes with a dark crown cap. Coquerel’s sifaka (P. coquereli) is somewhat similar; it lives in the thorny forests of Madagascar’s southern desert. Two other species live in the dry forests of western Madagascar.…

  • Verres, Gaius (Roman magistrate)

    Gaius Verres, Roman magistrate notorious for his misgovernment of Sicily. His trial exposed the extent of official corruption in the Roman provinces during the late republic. Verres was the son of an undistinguished senator. He became quaestor (financial administrator) to the consul Gnaeus Carbo,

  • Verrett, Shirley (American mezzo-soprano)

    Shirley Verrett, American opera singer (born May 31, 1931, New Orleans, La.—died Nov. 5, 2010, Ann Arbor, Mich.), was a mezzo-soprano who had a regal onstage presence and a colourful vocal range; she was best known in the U.S. and Europe for her roles as Georges Bizet’s fiery Carmen, as both Dido

  • Verri, Pietro (Italian scholar)

    Pietro Verri, political economist, journalist, government official, leader of a Milanese academy, and author of literary, historical, and economic works. Verri studied in Monzi, Milan, Rome, and Parma, then served as a captain in the Austrian army during the Seven Years’ War. After his return to

  • Verrier, Le (astronomy)

    Neptune: The ring system: …five known rings of Neptune—Galle, Le Verrier, Lassell, Arago, and Galatea, in order of increasing distance from the planet—lack the nonuniformity in density exhibited by Adams. Le Verrier, which is about 110 km (70 miles) in radial width, closely resembles the nonarc regions of Adams. Similar to the relationship between…

  • Verrier, Urbain-Jean-Joseph Le (French astronomer)

    Urbain-Jean-Joseph Le Verrier, French astronomer who predicted by mathematical means the existence of the planet Neptune. Appointed a teacher of astronomy at the école Polytechnique (“Polytechnic School”), Paris, in 1837, Le Verrier first undertook an extensive study of the theory of the planet

  • Verrill, Addison Emery (American zoologist)

    Addison Emery Verrill, zoologist and naturalist who, as curator of zoology at the Peabody Museum of Natural History at Yale University, developed one of the largest, most valuable zoological collections in the United States. From 1871 to 1887, while he was in charge of scientific explorations by

  • Verrines (work by Cicero)

    Gaius Verres: ) The complete Verrines drove home the evidence for senatorial corruption and are modern historians’ best source for studying the workings of Roman provincial administration in the late republic. (They were also the model for Edmund Burke’s prosecution of Warren Hastings in 1788–95 for maladministration in British India.)…

  • Verrius Flaccus, Marcus (Roman scholar)

    Marcus Verrius Flaccus, Roman freedman who became a learned scholar and grammarian and the most famous teacher of his day. Verrius Flaccus introduced the principle of competition among his pupils and awarded old books, beautiful or rare, as prizes. Augustus entrusted the education of his two

  • Verrocchio, Andrea del (Italian painter and sculptor)

    Andrea del Verrocchio, 15th-century Florentine sculptor and painter and the teacher of Leonardo da Vinci. His equestrian statue of Bartolomeo Colleoni, erected in Venice in 1496, is particularly important. Little accurate biographical information is known about Verrocchio. He was the son of Michele

  • verrou system (sports)

    football: Strategy and tactics: The complex Swiss verrou system, perfected by Karl Rappan, saw players switch positions and duties depending on the game’s pattern. It was the first system to play four players in defense and to use one of them as a “security bolt” behind the other three. Counterattacking football was…

  • verruca (dermatology)

    Wart, a well-defined growth of varying shape and size on the skin surface, caused by a virus. Essentially an infectious, benign skin tumour, a wart is composed of an abnormal proliferation of cells of the epidermis; the overproduction of these cells is caused by the viral infection. The most common

  • Verrucaria (lichen genus)

    Verrucaria, genus of lichens of the family Verrucariaceae, often found as a black crust covering seashore rocks. Along with the effects of weathering, Verrucaria helps break down limestone rocks by secreting acids that dissolve the cement holding together the rock particles. This produces an

  • Verrucariales (order of fungi)

    fungus: Annotated classification: Order Verrucariales Forms lichens on rocks and other substrates; perithecia (closed ascocarps with a pore in the top) have small depression-like spots on the surface; included in subclass Chaetothyriomycetidae; example genera include Agonimia, Dermatocarpon, Polyblastia, and Verrucaria. Order Coryneliales Forms lichens; asci in

  • Verrückte K?nig Ludwig, Der (king of Bavaria)

    Louis II, eccentric king of Bavaria from 1864 to 1886 and an admirer and patron of the composer Richard Wagner. He brought his territories into the newly founded German Empire (1871) but concerned himself only intermittently with affairs of state, preferring a life of increasingly morbid seclusion

  • Verrucomorpha (crustacean)

    cirripede: Diversity and distribution: …sessile barnacles, the Verrucomorpha, or wart barnacles, differs from the first two suborders in having the plates of the wall and operculum asymmetrically arranged. With the exception of a primitive genus, Neoverruca, found to be associated with abyssal hydrothermal springs at 3,600 metres in the western Pacific, the simple, asymmetrical…

  • verruga peruana (pathology)

    Carrión disease: …high mortality if untreated, and verruga peruana, a more-benign skin eruption characterized by reddish papules and nodules, which usually follows the Oroya fever (within weeks or months) but may also occur in individuals who have not exhibited previous symptoms. The skin lesions are thought to be an expression of developing…

  • vers de société (poetry)

    Vers de société, (French: “society verse”), light poetry written with particular wit and polish and intended for a limited, sophisticated audience. It has flourished in cultured societies, particularly in court circles and literary salons, from the time of the Greek poet Anacreon (6th century bc).

  • Vers et Prose (French literary magazine)

    Paul Fort: …founded and edited the review Vers et Prose (1905–14), which published the work of Paul Valéry and other important Symbolist writers. Between 1897 and 1924 Fort produced 30 volumes of ballads. His ballad stanzas were printed in the form of prose paragraphs to emphasize the importance of rhythm and assonance…

  • vers libre (French poetry)

    Vers libre, (French: “free verse”), 19th-century poetic innovation that liberated French poetry from its traditional prosodic rules. In vers libre, the basic metrical unit is the phrase rather than a line of a fixed number of syllables, as was traditional in French versification since the Middle

  • vers mesurés à l’antique (poetic metre)

    musique mesurée: It was associated with vers mesurés à l’antique, poetry written to classical quantitative metres (based on long and short syllables).

  • vers romantique (poetry)

    alexandrine: …a three-part line known as vers romantique, or trimètre. Vers libre (“free verse”) soon replaced the alexandrine as the leading verse form of French poetry.

  • vers trimètre (poetry)

    alexandrine: …a three-part line known as vers romantique, or trimètre. Vers libre (“free verse”) soon replaced the alexandrine as the leading verse form of French poetry.

  • Vers une architecture (work by Corbusier)

    Le Corbusier: Education and early years: …were collected and published as Vers une architecture. Later translated as Toward a New Architecture (1923), the book is written in a telling style that was to be characteristic of Le Corbusier in his long career as a polemicist. “A house is a machine for living in” and “a curved…

  • Versace, Donatella (Italian fashion designer)

    Donatella Versace, Italian fashion designer whose roles at Gianni Versace SpA included vice president and artistic director and whose contributions—business and artistic—furthered the company’s sophisticated high-end image. Versace was born the youngest of four children. Her older sister, Tina,

  • Versace, Donatella Francesca (Italian fashion designer)

    Donatella Versace, Italian fashion designer whose roles at Gianni Versace SpA included vice president and artistic director and whose contributions—business and artistic—furthered the company’s sophisticated high-end image. Versace was born the youngest of four children. Her older sister, Tina,

  • Versace, Gianni (Italian fashion designer)

    Gianni Versace, Italian fashion designer known for his daring fashions and glamorous lifestyle. His mother was a dressmaker, and Gianni was raised watching her work on designs in her boutique. After graduating from high school, Versace worked for a short time at his mother’s shop before moving in

  • Versailles (France)

    Versailles, town and capital of Yvelines département, ?le-de-France région, north-central France, 14 miles (22 km) southwest of Paris. The town developed around the 17th-century Palace of Versailles, built by Louis XIV, the principal residence of the kings of France and the seat of the government

  • Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards

    advanced ceramics: …been supplied by the 1993 Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS), which described an advanced ceramic as “an inorganic, nonmetallic (ceramic), basically crystalline material of rigorously controlled composition and manufactured with detailed regulation from highly refined and/or characterized raw materials giving precisely specified attributes.” A number of distinguishing…

  • Versailles, Gardens of (gardens, Versailles, France)

    Palace of Versailles: The gardens: The gardens of Versailles were planned by André Le N?tre, perhaps the most famous and influential landscape architect in French history. Behind the palace, the ground falls away on every side from a terrace adorned with ornamental basins, statues, and bronze groups. Directly…

  • Versailles, Palace of (palace, Versailles, France)

    Palace of Versailles, former French royal residence and centre of government, now a national landmark. It is located in the city of Versailles, Yvelines département, ?le-de-France région, northern France, 10 miles (16 km) west-southwest of Paris. As the centre of the French court, Versailles was

  • Versailles, Treaty of (1756)

    Fran?ois-Joachim de Pierre de Bernis: …resulted in the first (defensive) treaty of Versailles between France and Austria (May 1, 1756) and then to the second (offensive) treaty of Versailles (May 1, 1757). This alliance with France’s old enemy and the abandonment of the former alliance with Prussia formed the diplomatic prelude to the Seven Years’…

  • Versailles, Treaty of (1919)

    Treaty of Versailles, peace document signed at the end of World War I by the Allied and associated powers and by Germany in the Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles, France, on June 28, 1919; it took force on January 10, 1920. A brief treatment of the Treaty of Versailles follows. For full

  • Versailles, Treaty of (1783)

    Grenada: French settlement: …was restored to Britain in 1783.

  • Versalle, Richard (American opera singer)

    Richard Versalle, U.S. opera singer and tenor with the New York City Metropolitan Opera since 1978; he died onstage after having sung the line "Too bad you can only live so long" before falling from a ladder (b. March 12, 1932--d. Jan. 5,

  • Verschw?rung des Fiesko zu Genua, Die (play by Schiller)

    Friedrich Schiller: Early years and plays: …des Fiesko zu Genua (1783; Fiesco; or, the Genoese Conspiracy), subtitled “a republican tragedy”: the drama of the rise and fall of a would-be dictator, set in 16th-century Genoa, picturing, in Schiller’s own phrase, “ambition in action, and ultimately defeated.”

  • verse (literature)

    literature: The scope of literature: …called poetry at all but verse. Many novels—certainly all the world’s great novels—are literature, but there are thousands that are not so considered. Most great dramas are considered literature (although the Chinese, possessors of one of the world’s greatest dramatic traditions, consider their plays, with few exceptions, to possess no…

  • verse anthem (music)

    Henry Purcell: Music for church: …with sections for soloists (verse anthems), were written between 1680 and 1685, the year of Charles II’s death. The decline of the Chapel Royal during the reigns of James II and of William and Mary may have been responsible for the comparatively few works he produced during that period,…

  • verse drama (literature)

    Robert Browning: Life.: …energies for some years to verse drama, a form that he had already adopted for Strafford (1837). Between 1841 and 1846, in a series of pamphlets under the general title of Bells and Pomegranates, he published seven more plays in verse, including Pippa Passes (1841), A Blot in the ’Scutcheon…

  • Versek (work by Pet?fi)

    Sándor Pet?fi: His first volume of poetry, Versek, appeared in the same year and made him famous at once, though the tone of his poems scandalized many. In 1847 he married Julia Szendrey, who inspired his best love poems.

  • Verses (work by Dowson)

    Ernest Dowson: …reputation rests on his poetry: Verses (1896), the verse play The Pierrot of the Minute (1897), and Decorations in Verse and Prose (1899). His lyrics, much influenced by French poet Paul Verlaine and marked by meticulous attention to melody and cadence, turn the conventional world-weariness of the 1890s into a…

  • Verses on the Death of Dr. Swift (poem by Swift)

    English literature: Swift: …the intricately textured humour of Verses on the Death of Dr. Swift (completed in 1732; published 1739) and to the delicate humanity of his poems to Stella. But his prime distinction is, of course, as the greatest prose satirist in the English language. His period as secretary to the distinguished…

  • verses to his lady (English literature)

    George Turberville: …to publish a book of verses to his lady, a genre that became popular in the Elizabethan age.

  • verset (literature)

    Verset, a short verse, especially from a sacred book, such as those found in the Song of Solomon and the Psalms, or a stanza form modeled on such biblical verse. The stanza form is characterized by long lines and powerful, surging rhythms and usually expresses fervent religious or patriotic

  • versi sciolti (poetic form)

    Blank verse, unrhymed iambic pentameter, the preeminent dramatic and narrative verse form in English and also the standard form for dramatic verse in Italian and German. Its richness and versatility depend on the skill of the poet in varying the stresses and the position of the caesura (pause) in

  • versiera (curve)

    Maria Gaetana Agnesi: …into English as the “Witch of Agnesi.” The French Academy of Sciences, in its review of the Instituzioni, stated that: “We regard it as the most complete and best made treatise.” Pope Benedict XIV was similarly impressed and appointed Agnesi professor of mathematics at the University of Bologna in…

  • versification (literature)

    Prosody, the study of all the elements of language that contribute toward acoustic and rhythmic effects, chiefly in poetry but also in prose. The term derived from an ancient Greek word that originally meant a song accompanied by music or the particular tone or accent given to an individual

  • Versinikia, Battle of (Byzantine history)

    Michael I Rhangabe: …22, 813, he lost the Battle of Versinikia near Adrianople, as a result of the desertion of the troops of one of his generals, Leo the Armenian. Leo then deposed Michael and himself ascended the throne as Leo V. Michael retired to a monastery on one of the Princes Islands.…

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