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  • VASP (Brazilian airline)

    Brazil: Aerospace: …S?o Paulo State Airline (VASP), which handles mainly domestic flights; and Transbrasil.

  • Vaspurakan (historical principality, Armenia)

    Anatolia: Origins and ascendancy: …upon the Armenian principalities of Vaspurakan, Taik, and Ani along the easternmost border of the Byzantine Empire. Armenian historians of this period speak of their adversaries as “long-haired Turkmens armed with bow and lance on horses which flew like the wind.” The Armenian princes appealed to Constantinople for protection from…

  • Vásquez, Francisco Manuel (Spanish architect)

    Churrigueresque: …(1727–64), Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that, if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé, is as typically Churrigueresque. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings, undulating lines, and repetition of pattern.

  • Vásquez, Horacio (president of Dominican Republic)

    Dominican Republic: Civil unrest, dictatorship, and democracy: In 1924 Horacio Vásquez won a U.S.-supervised presidential election, but he proved to be an incompetent and corrupt leader, and pressure built up for his ouster. A revolution was launched in 1930, triggered in part by the initial economic shock of the Great Depression. The armed forces,…

  • Vásquez, Juan Estebán Aristizábal (Colombian musician)

    Juanes, Colombian guitarist, singer, songwriter, and activist who had an absorbing stage presence and gained international recognition in the early 21st century for his passionate songs of romantic love and social struggle. When Juanes was seven years old, his father and brothers taught him to play

  • Vasquez, Miguel (Mexican acrobat)

    circus: Acts of skill: In 1982 Miguel Vasquez became the first person to do a quadruple somersault from bar to catcher in a public performance.

  • vassa (Buddhism)

    Vassa, (Pali: “rains”) the Buddhist monastic retreat observed primarily in Buddhist communities in Southeast Asia during the three-month monsoon period each year. The tradition that monks—who ordinarily would be mendicant wanderers—gather in monasteries during the rainy season for a time of study

  • Vassa, Gustavus (abolitionist and writer)

    Olaudah Equiano, self-proclaimed West African sold into slavery and later freed. His autobiography, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano; or, Gustavus Vassa, the African, Written by Himself (1789), with its strong abolitionist stance and detailed description of life in Nigeria,

  • Va??āf (Persian author)

    Islamic arts: Belles lettres: A history written by Va??āf (died 1323) is the most notorious example of turgidity, but even his style was surpassed by some later writers. These stylistic tendencies deeply influenced Turkish prose writing: 17th-century Turkish historical works, such as those of Pe?evi (died c. 1650) and Naima (died 1716), for…

  • vassal (feudalism)

    Vassal, in feudal society, one invested with a fief in return for services to an overlord. Some vassals did not have fiefs and lived at their lord’s court as his household knights. Certain vassals who held their fiefs directly from the crown were tenants in chief and formed the most important

  • Vassall, Henry (British rugby player)

    Henry Vassall, English rugby player who is credited with introducing the three-threequarter formation into the Rugby Union instead of the traditional two-threequarter system. He scored three tries (touchdowns) for England in the first meeting with Wales at Blackheath in 1881. Vassall won a total of

  • Vassall, William John (British spy)

    John Vassall, British junior civil servant who succumbed to blackmail in regard to his homosexuality (which was then illegal) and spied for the KGB during his posting at the British embassy in Moscow in the mid 1950s and after his return to London. His arrest in 1962 and subsequent imprisonment (he

  • Vassalli, Sebastiano (Italian author)

    Italian literature: Fiction at the turn of the 21st century: …of the younger writers were Sebastiano Vassalli and especially Gianni Celati. Vassalli gradually distanced himself from the more radical experimentalism of Gruppo 63 so as to better exploit his gift for storytelling. La notte della cometa (1984; The Night of the Comet) is a fictionalized biography of the early 20th-century…

  • Vassar College (college, Poughkeepsie, New York, United States)

    Vassar College, private, coeducational institution of higher learning in Poughkeepsie, New York, U.S., one of the Seven Sisters schools. It is a liberal arts college offering undergraduate studies in the arts, languages and literatures, natural and social sciences, psychology, and other areas. The

  • Vassenius, Birger (Swedish astronomer)

    solar prominence: …to describe prominences (1733) was Birger Vassenius of G?teborg, Sweden. In 1868 French astronomer Pierre Janssen and British astronomer Sir Joseph Norman Lockyer independently announced a method of observing prominences by spectroscope without waiting for an eclipse.

  • vasso (feudalism)

    Vassal, in feudal society, one invested with a fief in return for services to an overlord. Some vassals did not have fiefs and lived at their lord’s court as his household knights. Certain vassals who held their fiefs directly from the crown were tenants in chief and formed the most important

  • Vassy, Massacre of (French history [1562])

    France: The age of the Reformation: …of a Huguenot congregation at Vassy (March 1562) by the partisans of Fran?ois, 2e duc de Guise.

  • V?ster?s (Sweden)

    V?ster?s, city and capital of V?stmanland l?n (county), east-central Sweden. It lies at the confluence of the Svart?n River and Lake M?lar, west of Stockholm. V?ster?s is Sweden’s largest inland port and the centre of its electrical industry. Originally known as Aros (“River Mouth”) and later as

  • V?sterbotten (county, Sweden)

    V?sterbotten, l?n (county), northern Sweden, extending from the Gulf of Bothnia west to the Norwegian border. Its area comprises the traditional landskap (province) of V?sterbotten and parts of ?ngermanland and Lappland. The terrain rises from the gulf through a forested upland zone and culminates

  • V?sterbottens (county, Sweden)

    V?sterbotten, l?n (county), northern Sweden, extending from the Gulf of Bothnia west to the Norwegian border. Its area comprises the traditional landskap (province) of V?sterbotten and parts of ?ngermanland and Lappland. The terrain rises from the gulf through a forested upland zone and culminates

  • V?sterg?tland (province, Sweden)

    V?sterg?tland, landskap (province), southwestern Sweden. It is composed largely of the administrative l?n (county) of V?stra G?taland and of portions of Halland and ?rebro counties. Lying between Lakes V?ttern and V?nern, it is bounded by the traditional provinces of V?rmland on the north, N?rke on

  • V?sternorrland (county, Sweden)

    V?sternorrland, l?n (county) of northeast Sweden, on the Gulf of Bothnia. Its area takes in most of the two traditional landskap (provinces) of Medelpad and ?ngermanland. Rising from the low coastal strip is a heavily forested interior plateau that supplies timber for sawmilling and wood-processing

  • V?sternorrlands (county, Sweden)

    V?sternorrland, l?n (county) of northeast Sweden, on the Gulf of Bothnia. Its area takes in most of the two traditional landskap (provinces) of Medelpad and ?ngermanland. Rising from the low coastal strip is a heavily forested interior plateau that supplies timber for sawmilling and wood-processing

  • V?stg?talagan (Swedish literature)

    Swedish literature: The Middle Ages: …in Old Swedish is the V?stg?talagan (“Law of West Gotland”), part of a legal code compiled in the 1220s. These legal documents often employ concrete images, alliteration, and a solemn prose rhythm suited to their proclamatory nature.

  • Vastitas Borealis (region, Mars)

    Vastitas Borealis, nearly level lowland plain that surrounds the north pole of the planet Mars and extends southward to about latitude 50°. The plain lies 4–5 km (2.5–3 miles) below the planet’s mean radius. In some places it is characterized by numerous low hills of roughly equal size that may be

  • V?stmanland (county, Sweden)

    V?stmanland, l?n (county) of central Sweden, extending north of Lake M?lar. Its area includes the southwestern part of the traditional landskap (province) of Uppland and the eastern part of V?stmanland. A fertile plain in the southeast rises northward to the edge of hilly Bergslagen district and is

  • V?stmanlands (county, Sweden)

    V?stmanland, l?n (county) of central Sweden, extending north of Lake M?lar. Its area includes the southwestern part of the traditional landskap (province) of Uppland and the eastern part of V?stmanland. A fertile plain in the southeast rises northward to the edge of hilly Bergslagen district and is

  • Vasto (Italy)

    Vasto, town, Abruzzi regione, south-central Italy. It is a beach resort on the Adriatic Sea, with brickmaking, candlemaking, and agricultural-processing industries. The town, the ancient name of which was Histonium, has an archaeological museum. There is a 13th-century castle, and the town

  • V?stra Aros (Sweden)

    V?ster?s, city and capital of V?stmanland l?n (county), east-central Sweden. It lies at the confluence of the Svart?n River and Lake M?lar, west of Stockholm. V?ster?s is Sweden’s largest inland port and the centre of its electrical industry. Originally known as Aros (“River Mouth”) and later as

  • V?stra G?taland (county, Sweden)

    V?stra G?taland, l?n (county), southwestern Sweden. It was created in 1998 by the amalgamation of the counties of ?lvsborg, G?teborg och Bohus, and Skaraborg. The capital is Gothenburg, Sweden’s major port and second largest city. V?stra G?taland is bordered on the west by Norway, the Skagerrak,

  • Vasubandhu (Indian Buddhist philosopher)

    Vasubandhu, Indian Buddhist philosopher and logician, younger brother of the philosopher Asa?ga. His conversion from the Sarvāstivāda to the Mahāyāna Buddhist tradition is attributed to Asa?ga. Vasubandhu refined classical Indian syllogistic logic by distinguishing the procedure for reaching

  • Vasudeva (Hindu god)

    Vasudeva, in Hindu mythology, the patronymic of the deity Krishna, a son of Vasudeva. The worshippers of Vasudeva-Krishna formed one of the earliest theistic devotional movements within Hinduism. When they merged with another group, the Bhagavata, they represented the beginnings of modern

  • Vasudeva (Brahman minister)

    India: The Shunga kingdom: …overthrown by the Brahman minister Vasudeva, who founded the Kanva dynasty, which lasted 45 years and following which the Magadha area was of greatly diminished importance until the 4th century ce.

  • Vasudeva Sarvabhauma (Indian philosopher)

    Indian philosophy: The ultralogical period: …were Pakshadhara Mishra of Mithila, Vasudeva Sarvabhauma (16th century), his disciple Raghunatha Shiromani (both of Bengal), and Gadadhara Bhattacharyya.

  • Vasudeva-Krishna (Hindu god)

    Vasudeva, in Hindu mythology, the patronymic of the deity Krishna, a son of Vasudeva. The worshippers of Vasudeva-Krishna formed one of the earliest theistic devotional movements within Hinduism. When they merged with another group, the Bhagavata, they represented the beginnings of modern

  • Vāsudeva-K???a (Hindu god)

    Vasudeva, in Hindu mythology, the patronymic of the deity Krishna, a son of Vasudeva. The worshippers of Vasudeva-Krishna formed one of the earliest theistic devotional movements within Hinduism. When they merged with another group, the Bhagavata, they represented the beginnings of modern

  • Vāsudevahi??ī (Jain Prakrit text)

    South Asian arts: Narrative literature: …Jain Prākrit text of the Vāsudevahi??ī, “The Roamings of Vāsudeva” (before 6th century), describing the acquisition of numerous wives by Krishna Vāsudeva.

  • Vasugupta (Indian author)

    Indian philosophy: Kashmiri Shaivism: …school consists in the Shiva-sutra, Vasugupta’s Spanda-karika (8th–9th centuries; “Verses on Creation”), Utpala’s Pratyabhijna-sutra (c. 900; “Aphorisms on Recognition”), Abhinavagupta’s Paramarthasara (“The Essence of the Highest Truth”), Pratyabhijna-vimarshini (“Reflections on Recognition”), and Tantraloka (“Lights on the Doctrine”) in the 10th century, and Kshemaraja’s

  • Vasumitra (Indian philosopher)

    Indian mathematics: The post-Vedic context: 1st century bce) by Vasumitra mentions merchants’ “counting pits,” where tokens in a row of shallow depressions kept track of units, hundreds, and thousands (a tens pit may have been included but is not specified). Using these as a simile for the changeable aspects of unchanging realities, Vasumitra says,…

  • Vasvar, Treaty of (Hungarian history)

    Austria: Austria as a great power: …in the terms of the Treaty of Vasvár: Transylvania was given to Mihály Apafi, a ruler of pro-Turkish sympathies. A minor territorial concession was also made to the Turks. The year after the Turkish peace, Tirol and the Vorlande reverted to Leopold I (1665), and the second period of the…

  • Vasylivka (Ukraine)

    Snizhne, city, eastern Ukraine, in the Donets Basin coalfield. Established in 1784 as the village of Vasylivka, from 1900 it grew with the discovery of anthracite deposits nearby. It was incorporated in 1938 and, in addition to mining, has specialized in the manufacture of equipment for the

  • Vasylkiv (city, Ukraine)

    Vasylkiv, city, northern Ukraine, on the Stuhna River, a tributary of the Dnieper River. The city, which was founded in 988 and fortified in the 11th century, was destroyed in 1240 by the Mongols. It eventually recovered and was incorporated as a city in 1796. In 1825, troops stationed there took

  • Vasyugan (river, Russia)

    Ob River: Physiography: …left), the Ket (right), the Vasyugan (left), and the Tym and Vakh rivers (both right). Down to the Vasyugan confluence the river passes through the southern belt of the taiga, thereafter entering the middle belt. Below the Vakh confluence the middle Ob changes its course from northwesterly to westerly and…

  • Vasyuganye Swamp (swamp, Russia)

    Russia: Rivers: The Vasyuganye Swamp at the Ob-Irtysh confluence covers some 19,000 square miles (49,000 square km).

  • VAT

    Value-added tax (VAT), government levy on the amount that a business firm adds to the price of a commodity during production and distribution of a good. The most widely used method for collecting VAT is the credit method, which recognizes and adjusts for the taxes paid on previously purchased

  • vat dye (chemical compound)

    Vat dye, any of a large class of water-insoluble dyes, such as indigo and the anthraquinone derivatives, that are used particularly on cellulosic fibres. The dye is applied in a soluble, reduced form to impregnate the fibre and then oxidized in the fibre back to its original insoluble form. Vat

  • vat leaching (industrial process)

    gold processing: Cyanidation: …ore), cyanidation is accomplished by vat leaching, which involves holding a slurry of ore and solvent for several hours in large tanks equipped with agitators. For extracting gold from low-grade ores, heap leaching is practiced. The huge heaps described above are sprayed with a dilute solution of sodium cyanide, and…

  • vat sizing (paper production)

    papermaking: Improvements in materials and processes: …paper could be sized in vats with rosin and alum. Although Illig published his discovery in 1807, the method did not come into wide use for about 25 years.

  • vata (humour)

    Siddha medicine: Humoral pathology: These three components—vata, pitta, and kapha (representing air, fire, and water, respectively)—are known as humours, and their inharmonious interaction produces various pathological states.

  • Vatan yahnut Silistre (work by Kemal)

    Nam?k Kemal: …wrote his most famous play, Vatan yahut Silistre (“Fatherland; or, Silistria”), a drama evolving around the siege of Silistria in 1854, in which he expounded on the ideas of patriotism and liberalism. The play was denounced by the Ottoman government and led to his imprisonment on Cyprus (1873–76). After his…

  • Vatapi (India)

    Badami, town, northern Karnataka state, southwestern India. It is situated in an upland region just west of the Malprabha River. The town was known as Vatapi in ancient times and was the first capital of the Chalukya kings. It is the site of important 6th- and 7th-century Brahmanical and Jain cave

  • Vaté (island, Vanuatu)

    éfaté, main island of Vanuatu, in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It is volcanic in origin and occupies an area of 353 square miles (915 square km). Its highest peak is Mount Macdonald, which rises to 2,123 feet (647 metres). éfaté’s terrain is rugged and covered by tropical rain forest, nurtured

  • Vater’s ampulla (anatomy)

    endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatoscopy: …the duodenum to visualize the ampulla of Vater, the opening of the common bile duct into the duodenum. This enables the injection of a radiopaque dye into the common bile duct. The injection of dye permits radiographic, or X-ray, visualization of the common bile duct and the pancreatic duct. This…

  • Vaterland (ship)

    ship: Passenger liners in the 20th century: Line’s Leviathan; the Imperator became the Cunard Line’s Berengaria; and the Bismarck became the White Star Line’s Majestic. That war severely cut traffic, although ships were used for troop transport. By eliminating German competition and seizing their great ships, the Western Allies returned to competing among…

  • Vaterl?ndische Front (political party, Europe)

    Austria: Authoritarianism: Dollfuss and Schuschnigg: …parties were abolished except the Fatherland Front (Vaterl?ndische Front), which Dollfuss had founded in 1933 to unite all conservative groups. In April 1934 the rump of the parliament was brought together and accepted an authoritarian constitution. The executive was given complete control over the legislative branch of government; the elected…

  • Vaterl?ndische Gedichte (work by Uhland)

    Ludwig Uhland: …poems, which were published in Vaterl?ndische Gedichte (1815; “Fatherland Poems”). It was the first of some 50 editions of the work issued during his lifetime. The collection, which was inspired by the contemporary political situation in Germany, reflected both his serious study of folklore and his ability to create ballads…

  • Vathek (novel by Beckford)

    Vathek, Gothic novel by William Beckford, published in 1786. Considered a masterpiece of bizarre invention and sustained fantasy, Vathek was written in French in 1782 and was translated into English by the author’s friend the Rev. Samuel Henley, who published it anonymously, claiming in the preface

  • Vati (novel by Schneider)

    German literature: The 1970s and ’80s: …developed by Peter Schneider in Vati (1987; “Daddy”), in which a young German lawyer travels to South America to meet his father, who has fled there to escape trial for Nazi crimes (the figure of the father is modeled on the Nazi doctor Josef Mengele). Ausl?schung: ein Zerfall (1986; Extinction),…

  • Vatican Apostolic Library (library, Vatican City, Europe)

    Vatican Apostolic Library, official library of the Vatican, located inside the Vatican palace. It is especially notable as one of the world’s richest manuscript depositories. The library is the direct heir of the first library of the Roman pontiffs. Very little is known of this library up to the

  • Vatican Cellars, The (work by Gide)

    André Gide: Great creative period: Les Caves du Vatican (1914; The Vatican Swindle) marks the transition to the second phase of Gide’s great creative period. He called it not a tale but a sotie, by which he meant a satirical work whose foolish or mad characters are treated farcically within…

  • Vatican City

    Vatican City, ecclesiastical state, seat of the Roman Catholic Church, and an enclave in Rome, situated on the west bank of the Tiber River. Vatican City is the world’s smallest fully independent nation-state. Its medieval and Renaissance walls form its boundaries except on the southeast at St.

  • Vatican City, flag of

    vertically divided yellow-white national flag with an emblem on the white stripe featuring two crossed keys and a papal tiara. The flag is square in its proportions.For centuries a substantial area in central Italy, including the city of Rome, constituted the Papal States under the rule of the

  • Vatican Council, First (Roman Catholic history [1869–1870])

    First Vatican Council, (1869–70), 20th ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church, convoked by Pope Pius IX to deal with contemporary problems. The pope was referring to the rising influence of rationalism, liberalism, and materialism. Preparations for the council were directed by a central

  • Vatican Council, Second (Roman Catholic history [1962–1965])

    Second Vatican Council, (1962–65), 21st ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church, announced by Pope John XXIII on January 25, 1959, as a means of spiritual renewal for the church and as an occasion for Christians separated from Rome to join in a search for Christian unity. Preparatory

  • Vatican II (Roman Catholic history [1962–1965])

    Second Vatican Council, (1962–65), 21st ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church, announced by Pope John XXIII on January 25, 1959, as a means of spiritual renewal for the church and as an occasion for Christians separated from Rome to join in a search for Christian unity. Preparatory

  • Vatican Library (library, Vatican City, Europe)

    Vatican Apostolic Library, official library of the Vatican, located inside the Vatican palace. It is especially notable as one of the world’s richest manuscript depositories. The library is the direct heir of the first library of the Roman pontiffs. Very little is known of this library up to the

  • Vatican Museums and Galleries (art collections, Vatican City, Europe)

    Vatican Museums and Galleries, art collections of the popes since the beginning of the 15th century, housed in the papal palaces and other buildings in the Vatican. The Pio-Clementino Museum (Museo Pio-Clementino or Musei di Scultura) was founded in the 18th century by Pope Clement XIV and

  • Vatican palace (papal residence, Vatican City)

    Vatican palace, papal residence in the Vatican north of St. Peter’s Basilica. From the 4th century until the Avignonese period (1309–77) the customary residence of the popes was at the Lateran. Pope Symmachus built two episcopal residences in the Vatican, one on either side of the basilica, to be

  • Vatican Swindle, The (work by Gide)

    André Gide: Great creative period: Les Caves du Vatican (1914; The Vatican Swindle) marks the transition to the second phase of Gide’s great creative period. He called it not a tale but a sotie, by which he meant a satirical work whose foolish or mad characters are treated farcically within…

  • Vatna Glacier (ice field, Iceland)

    Vatnaj?kull, extensive ice field, southeastern Iceland, covering an area of 3,200 square miles (8,400 square km) with an average ice thickness of more than 3,000 feet (900 metres). Generally about 5,000 feet above sea level, in the ?r?faj?kull in the south it rises to 6,952 feet (2,119 metres) on

  • Vatnaj?kull (ice field, Iceland)

    Vatnaj?kull, extensive ice field, southeastern Iceland, covering an area of 3,200 square miles (8,400 square km) with an average ice thickness of more than 3,000 feet (900 metres). Generally about 5,000 feet above sea level, in the ?r?faj?kull in the south it rises to 6,952 feet (2,119 metres) on

  • Vatnsd?la saga (Icelandic saga)

    saga: Sagas of Icelanders: …to cover his guilt; while Vatnsd?la saga is the story of a noble chieftain whose last act is to help his killer escape.

  • Vatpatraka (India)

    Vadodara, city, east-central Gujarat state, west-central India. It is located on the Vishvamitra River about 60 miles (100 km) southeast of Ahmadabad. The earliest record of the city is in a grant or charter of 812 ce that mentions it as Vadapadraka, a hamlet attached to the town of Ankottaka. In

  • Vatreshna Makedonska-Revolutsionna Organizatsiya (Balkan revolutionary organization)

    Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO), secret revolutionary society that was active in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Its many incarnations struggled with two contradictory goals: establishing Macedonia as an autonomous state on the one hand and promoting Bulgarian

  • Vatsa (historical state, India)

    India: Location: The Vatsa state emerged from Kaushambi. The Cedi state (in Bundelkhand) lay on a major route to the Deccan. South of the Vindhyas, on the Godavari River, Ashvaka continued to thrive.

  • Vatsagulma dynasty (Indian history)

    India: The Deccan: …was established by Sarvasena in Vatsagulma (Basim, in Akola district), and the northern line helped the southern to conquer Kuntala (southern Maharashtra). The domination of the northern Deccan by the main Vakataka line during this period is clearly established by the matrimonial alliances not only with the Guptas but also…

  • Vatsaraja (king of Ujjain)

    India: The tripartite struggle: Vatsaraja, a Pratihara ruler who came to the throne about 778, controlled eastern Rajasthan and Malava. His ambition to take Kannauj brought him into conflict with the Pala king, Dharmapala (reigned c. 770–810), who had by this time advanced up the Ganges valley. The Rashtrakuta…

  • Vatsayana (Indian commentator)

    Indian philosophy: The logical period: …era) and his 5th-century commentator Vatsyayana established the foundations of the Nyaya as a school almost exclusively preoccupied with logical and epistemological issues. The Madhyamika (“Middle Way”) school of Buddhism—also known as the Shunyavada (“Way of Emptiness”) school—arose, and the analytical investigations of Nagarjuna (c. 200), the great propounder of…

  • Vātsīputrīya (Buddhist school)

    Pudgalavādin, ancient Buddhist school in India that affirmed the existence of an enduring person (pudgala) distinct from both the conditioned (sa?sk?ta) and the unconditioned (asa?sk?-ta); the sole asa?sk?ta for them was nirvana. If consciousness exists, there must be a subject of consciousness,

  • Vatsyayana (Indian commentator)

    Indian philosophy: The logical period: …era) and his 5th-century commentator Vatsyayana established the foundations of the Nyaya as a school almost exclusively preoccupied with logical and epistemological issues. The Madhyamika (“Middle Way”) school of Buddhism—also known as the Shunyavada (“Way of Emptiness”) school—arose, and the analytical investigations of Nagarjuna (c. 200), the great propounder of…

  • Va??agāma?ī Abhaya (king of Ceylon)

    Abhayagiri: …centre (vihāra) built by King Va??agāma?i Abhaya (29–17 bc) on the northern side of Anurādhapura, the capital of Ceylon (Sri Lanka) at that time. Its importance lay, in part, in the fact that religious and political power were closely related, so that monastic centres had much influence on the secular…

  • Vattel, Emmerich de (Swiss jurist)

    Emmerich de Vattel, Swiss jurist who, in Le Droit des gens (1758; “The Law of Nations”), applied a theory of natural law to international relations. His treatise was especially influential in the United States because his principles of liberty and equality coincided with the ideals expressed in the

  • V?tter, Lake (lake, Sweden)

    Lake V?tter, lake in south-central Sweden, southeast of Lake V?ner between the administrative l?n (counties) of V?stra G?taland and ?sterg?tland and north of the traditional landskap (province) of Sm?land. With a length of 81 miles (130 km), a breadth of about 19 miles (31 km), and an area of 738

  • V?ttern (lake, Sweden)

    Lake V?tter, lake in south-central Sweden, southeast of Lake V?ner between the administrative l?n (counties) of V?stra G?taland and ?sterg?tland and north of the traditional landskap (province) of Sm?land. With a length of 81 miles (130 km), a breadth of about 19 miles (31 km), and an area of 738

  • Vatutin, Nikolay Fyodorovich (Soviet general)

    Kyiv: City layout: …are the grave of General Nikolay Vatutin, commander of the Soviet forces that liberated Kyiv in 1943, and a rotunda marking the supposed grave of the early Varangian (Viking) chief Askold.

  • Vau, Louis Le (French architect)

    Western architecture: France: …from which Fran?ois Mansart and Louis Le Vau developed their succession of superb country houses.

  • vau-de-ville (music)

    Air de cour, (French: “court air”) genre of French solo or part-song predominant from the late 16th century through the 17th century. It originated in arrangements, for voice and lute, of popular chansons (secular part-songs) written in a light chordal style. Such arrangements were originally known

  • vau-l’eau, à (work by Huysmans)

    Joris-Karl Huysmans: …first was à vau-l’eau (1882; Down Stream), a tragicomic account of the misfortunes, largely sexual, of a humble civil servant, Folantin. à rebours (1884; Against the Grain), Huysmans’s best-known novel, relates the experiments in aesthetic decadence undertaken by the bored survivor of a noble line. The ambitious and controversial Là-bas…

  • Vauban, Sébastien Le Prestre de (French military engineer)

    Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban, French military engineer who revolutionized the art of siege craft and defensive fortifications. He fought in all of France’s wars of Louix XIV’s reign (1643–1715). Vauban was from a family of very modest means that belonged to the petty nobility. In 1651 he became a

  • Vaubernier, Jeanne (mistress of Louis XV of France)

    Jeanne Bécu, countess du Barry, last of the mistresses of the French king Louis XV (reigned 1715–74). Although she exercised little political influence at the French court, her unpopularity contributed to the decline of the prestige of the crown in the early 1770s. She was born Marie-Jeanne Bécu,

  • Vaubourg, Saint (Frankish abbess)

    Saint Walburga, ; feast day February 25), abbess and missionary who, with her brothers Willibald of Eichst?tt and Winebald of Heidenheim, was important in St. Boniface’s organization of the Frankish church. Walburga was a Benedictine at the monastery of Wimborne, Dorsetshire, when Winebald summoned

  • Vaucanson, Jacques de (French inventor)

    Jacques de Vaucanson, prolific inventor of robot devices of significance for modern industry. Educated at the Jesuit College of Grenoble, Vaucanson developed a liking for machinery at an early age, first in Lyon and later in Paris. In 1738 he constructed an automaton, “The Flute Player,” followed

  • Vaucheria (genus of yellow-green algae)

    Vaucheria, genus of yellow-green algae (family Vaucheriaceae), found nearly worldwide. Most species occur in fresh water, though some are marine. The algae can be found in almost any wetland habitat, including mudflats, salt marshes, estuaries, wet farmlands, and pond fringes. They can tolerate

  • Vaucheria litorea (yellow-green algae)

    Elysia chlorotica: … (photosynthesizing structures within plants) from Vaucheria litorea, a yellow-green alga it consumes, into cells that surround E. chlorotica’s digestive tract. Chloroplasts and other plastids (small bodies involved in the synthesis and storage of foodstuffs) can continue to photosynthesize nutrients for the animals for up to several months. It is unknown,…

  • Vauclin, Mount (mountain, Martinique)

    Martinique: Relief and drainage: …metres), in the centre; and Mount Vauclin, rising to 1,654 feet (504 metres), in the south.

  • Vaucluse (department, France)

    Provence–Alpes–C?te d'Azur: Var, Bouches-du-Rh?ne, and Vaucluse. Provence–Alpes–C?te d’Azur is bounded by the régions of Occitanie to the west and Auvergne-Rh?ne-Alpes to the north. Other boundaries include Italy to the east and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The région is nearly coextensive with the historic region of Provence. The capital…

  • Vaucouleurs (France)

    St. Joan of Arc: Joan’s mission: …May 1428 from Domrémy to Vaucouleurs, the nearest stronghold still loyal to the Dauphin, where she asked the captain of the garrison, Robert de Baudricourt, for permission to join the Dauphin. He did not take the 16-year-old and her visions seriously, and she returned home. Joan went to Vaucouleurs again…

  • Vaucouleurs, Gerard de (American astronomer)

    Gerard Henri de Vaucouleurs, French-born U.S. astronomer whose pioneering studies of distant galaxies contributed to knowledge of the age and large-scale structure of the universe (b. April 25, 1918--d. Oct. 7,

  • Vaucresson (France)

    Western architecture: Europe: …he designed a villa at Vaucresson, France (1922), the abstract planes and strip windows of which revealed his desire to “arrive at the house machine”—that is, standardized houses with standardized furniture. In 1922 he also brought forth his project for a skyscraper city of 3,000,000 people, in which tall office…

  • Vaud (canton, Switzerland)

    Vaud, canton, southwestern Switzerland, bordering France and the Jura Mountains to the west and Lake Geneva (Lac Léman) to the south. It has an area of 1,240 sq mi (3,212 sq km). In the west it extends a short way along the shores of Lake Neuchatel, with a long narrow eastern tongue stretching past

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