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  • variegated mud-loving beetle (insect)

    coleopteran: Annotated classification: Family Heteroceridae (variegated mud-loving beetles) About 500 widely distributed species; example Heterocerus. Family Limnichidae (minute marsh-loving beetles) Similar to Dryopidae; a few widely distributed species. Family Lutrochidae (travertine

  • variegated spider monkey (primate)

    spider monkey: …through northwestern Ecuador, and the variegated, or brown, spider monkey (A. hybridus), which inhabits northeastern Colombia and northwestern Venezuela—are listed as critically endangered. Spider monkeys are widely hunted for food by local people. Consequently, some of their population decline has been attributed to hunting pressure. However, habitat loss resulting from…

  • variegated tinamou (bird)

    tinamou: Reproduction: …four to one in the variegated tinamou (Crypturellus variegatus), but is about one to one in the ornate tinamou.

  • variegated toad (amphibian)

    toad: …which are also known as variegated toads (Atelopus), are found in South and Central America. They are commonly triangular-headed and have enlarged hind feet. Some are brightly coloured in black with yellow, red, or green. When molested, the small poisonous Melanophryniscus stelzneri of Uruguay bends its head and limbs over…

  • Varieties of Civil Religion (work by Bellah)

    Robert Neelly Bellah: Varieties of Civil Religion (1980) expresses Bellah’s belief that the “civil” religion inherent in educational and legal systems should be encouraged because of its openness and tolerance. The popular book Habits of the Heart (1985; with others) describes relationships between religion and American culture.

  • Varieties of Human Physique, The (work by Sheldon)

    William Sheldon: …psychology, which he outlined in The Varieties of Human Physique (1940) and The Varieties of Temperament (1942). Sheldon classified people according to three body types: endomorphs, who are rounded and soft, were said to have a tendency toward a “viscerotonic” personality (i.e., relaxed, comfortable, extroverted); mesomorphs, who are square and

  • Varieties of Religious Experience, The (work by James)

    study of religion: Psychological studies: …investigations by psychologists was The Varieties of Religious Experience, by the American philosopher and psychologist William James (1842–1910), in which he attempted to account for experiences such as conversion through the concept of invasions from the unconscious. Because of the clarity of his style and his philosophical distinction, the work…

  • Varieties of Temperament, The (work by Sheldon)

    William Sheldon: …of Human Physique (1940) and The Varieties of Temperament (1942). Sheldon classified people according to three body types: endomorphs, who are rounded and soft, were said to have a tendency toward a “viscerotonic” personality (i.e., relaxed, comfortable, extroverted); mesomorphs, who are square and muscular, were said to have a tendency…

  • variety (entertainment)

    Music hall and variety, popular entertainment that features successive acts starring singers, comedians, dancers, and actors and sometimes jugglers, acrobats, and magicians. Derived from the taproom concerts given in city taverns in England during the 18th and 19th centuries, music hall

  • Variety (German film)

    Emil Jannings: …position of washroom attendant; in Variete (1925; Variety) he was a married sideshow operator deceived by a female trapeze artist; and in Der blaue Engel (1930; The Blue Angel), which introduced the sultry leading lady Marlene Dietrich, he was an aging professor hopelessly in love with a young but worldly-wise…

  • variety (taxon)

    fruit farming: The variety: its propagation and improvement: …an individual is a horticultural variety. If it is multiplied vegetatively from rooted cuttings, from root pieces that throw shoots, or by graftage, each plant in the group (called a clone) that results is identical with the others. Nearly all commercially important perennial fruit and nut crops are clonally propagated;…

  • variety meat (food)

    Offal, any of various nonmuscular parts of the carcasses of beef and veal, mutton and lamb, and pork, which are either consumed directly as food or used in the production of other foods. Variety meats have been a part of the human diet since the invention of cooking, which rendered the otherwise

  • variety play (Chinese theatre)

    Zaju, (Chinese: “mixed drama or play”) one of the major forms of Chinese drama. The style originated as a short variety play in North China during the Northern Song dynasty (960–1127), and during the Yuan dynasty (1206–1368) it developed into a mature four-act dramatic form, in which songs

  • variety show (type of radio and television program)

    Sid Caesar: …comedian who pioneered the television variety show format with the programs Your Show of Shows (1950–54) and Caesar’s Hour (1954–57).

  • variety show (entertainment)

    Music hall and variety, popular entertainment that features successive acts starring singers, comedians, dancers, and actors and sometimes jugglers, acrobats, and magicians. Derived from the taproom concerts given in city taverns in England during the 18th and 19th centuries, music hall

  • variety-seeking buying behaviour (economics)

    marketing: Brand differences: Variety-seeking buying behaviour occurs when the consumer is not involved with the purchase, yet there are significant brand differences. In this case, the cost of switching products is low, and so the consumer may, perhaps simply out of boredom, move from one brand to another.…

  • Varig (Brazilian airline)

    Varig, Brazilian airline founded on May 7, 1927, with the assistance of a Berlin trading concern, Kondor Syndicat, which had begun flights in the state of Rio Grande do Sul the previous January. Thereafter, Varig opened several more intrastate routes. Major expansion did not begin until 1953,

  • Varin, Joseph (French priest)

    Society of the Sacred Heart: In the late 1700s Joseph Varin, a leader in the religious renewal in France following the French Revolution, sought a young woman to head an educational order modelled on the Jesuits and dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus. He chose Mother Barat, and in Paris on November 21,…

  • Varin, Quentin (French artist)

    Nicolas Poussin: Beginnings: …encouraged by the itinerant painter Quentin Varin, who visited Les Andelys in 1611–12 and became Poussin’s first teacher. About 1612 Poussin departed for Paris, where he studied anatomy, perspective, and architecture and worked with the minor masters Georges Lallemand and Ferdinand Elle. During this period he was introduced to engravings…

  • varina (Portuguese fishwife)

    Lisbon: Character of the city: The varinas (fish vendors) who roam the streets dressed in long black skirts still carry their wares in baskets on their heads. Vessels tie up at quays where the clang of trolley cars blends with ships’ horns. At dawn, fishing boats deposit their catch for noisy…

  • Varini, Felice (Swiss artist)

    anamorphosis: In 2014 Swiss artist Felice Varini—known for large-scale anamorphic installations—created Three Ellipses for Three Locks, for which he painted three ellipses, segments of which covered roads, walls, and nearly 100 buildings in the historic centre of the city of Hasselt, Belgium. The design became coherent only when viewed from…

  • Varinius, Publius (Roman praetor)

    Third Servile War: …rebels, and when the praetor Publius Varinius took the field against them he found them entrenched like a regular army on the plain. Before the Romans could act, the rebels slipped away, and when Varinius advanced to storm their lines he found them deserted. From Campania the rebels marched into…

  • variola major (virus)

    smallpox: …is caused by infection with variola major, a virus of the family Poxviridae. (A less-virulent form of smallpox, called alastrim, is caused by a closely related virus known as variola minor.) There are no natural animal carriers nor natural propagation of variola outside the human body.

  • variola major (disease)

    Smallpox, acute infectious disease that begins with a high fever, headache, and back pain and then proceeds to an eruption on the skin that leaves the face and limbs covered with cratered pockmarks, or pox. For centuries smallpox was one of the world’s most-dreaded plagues, killing as many as 30

  • variola minor (virus)

    smallpox: …closely related virus known as variola minor.) There are no natural animal carriers nor natural propagation of variola outside the human body.

  • variolation (medicine)

    Variolation, obsolete method of immunizing patients against smallpox by infecting them with substance from the pustules of patients with a mild form of the disease (variola minor). The disease then usually occurs in a less-dangerous form than when contracted naturally. The method was popularized

  • variole (geology)

    spherulite: Varioles are pea-sized spheres intimately connected to a fine-grained groundmass but differing in colour, especially when weathered. They are typically formed by secondary minerals.

  • variometer (instrument)

    gliding: …most important instrument is the variometer, which shows when the glider is moving up or down even when that movement is too minute to be noticed by the pilot.

  • Various Contrivances by Which British and Foreign Orchids Are Fertilised by Insects, The (work by Darwin)

    Charles Darwin: The patriarch in his home laboratory: …Origin was, to everyone’s surprise, The Various Contrivances by which British and Foreign Orchids are Fertilised by Insects (1862). He showed that the orchid’s beauty was not a piece of floral whimsy “designed” by God to please humans but honed by selection to attract insect cross-pollinators. The petals guided the…

  • Various Prospects of Mankind, Nature, and Providence (work by Wallace)

    population: Malthus and his successors: …of Robert Wallace in his Various Prospects of Mankind, Nature, and Providence (1761), which posited that the perfection of society carried with it the seeds of its own destruction, in the stimulation of population growth such that “the earth would at last be overstocked, and become unable to support its…

  • Variscan orogenic belt (mountain range, Europe)

    Variscan orogenic belt, series of mountain ranges that developed during a span of time extending from 370 million to 290 million years ago—during the Devonian Period (which occurred about 419 million to 359 million years ago), the Carboniferous Period (359 million to 299 million years ago), and the

  • Variscan orogeny (geology)

    Carboniferous Period: Paleogeography: …Gondwana became fused by the Appalachian-Hercynian orogeny (mountain-building event), which continued into the Permian Period. The position of the landmass that would become the eastern United States and northern Europe remained equatorial, while the China and Siberia cratons continued to reside at high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere.

  • variscite (mineral)

    Variscite, phosphate mineral, hydrated aluminum phosphate (AlPO4·2H2O), which is valued as a semiprecious gemstone and an ornamental material. Both variscite and strengite, a similar mineral in which iron replaces aluminum in the crystal structure, occur as glassy nodules, veins, or crusts, in

  • varistor (semiconductor device)

    crystal: Conducting properties of semiconductors: This material is called a varistor, which is a contraction of the words variable and resistor. Zinc oxide varistors are widely used as circuit elements to protect against voltage surges. Figure 9 shows a graph of current versus voltage for a zinc oxide varistor used in household electronics. There is…

  • Varius (Roman author)

    Latin literature: Epic and epyllion: …epic” for which Virgil’s friend Varius is renowned, but Virgil’s Aeneid was certainly something new. Recent history would have been too particularized a theme. Instead, Virgil developed Naevius’ version of Aeneas’ pilgrimage from Troy to found Rome. The poem is in part an Odyssey of travel (with an interlude of…

  • varix (medical disorder)

    Varicose vein, vein that is twisted and distended with blood. The term varix is also used for similar abnormalities in arteries and in lymphatic vessels. Varicose veins occur in a number of areas, including the legs, the esophagus, the spermatic veins (which return blood from the testes; varicose

  • Varkana (ancient region, Iran)

    Hyrcania, (“Wolf’s Land”), ancient region located southeast of the Caspian Sea. Its capital was Zadracarta (Astrabad, modern Gorgān), and it formed part of the Median, Achaemenian, Seleucid, and Parthian empires, either as an independent province or joined with Parthia. In the list of Persian

  • Varkari Panth (Brahmin sect)

    South Asian arts: Marathi: …arose, the Mahānubhāva and the Varakari Panth, both of which put forth vast quantities of literature. The latter sect was perhaps the more productive, for it became associated with bhakti, when that movement stirred Mahārāshtra in the early 14th century, and particularly with the popular cult of Vi??hoba at Pandharpur.…

  • Varkiza Peace Agreement (Greece [1945])

    EAM-ELAS: …peace treaty was signed (Varkiza Peace Agreement, Feb. 12, 1945), providing for the surrender of ELAS. A large-scale guerrilla war was begun by the communists in 1946, however, and lasted until 1949.

  • Varlaám (monastery, Greece)

    Metéora: …Great Metéoron, Varlaám (also called All Saints [áyioi Pándes]), Roussanou, St. Nikolas (áyios Nikolaos), Holy Trinity (áyia Triada), and St. Stephen (áyios Stéfanos). Some still serve a religious function, though they are now only sparsely populated by monks and nuns. Since the construction of paved roads through the area in…

  • Varlaro, Luigi Francisco (American singer)

    Don Cornell, (Luigi Francisco Varlaro), American singer (born April 21, 1919, Bronx, N.Y.—died Feb. 23, 2004, Aventura, Fla.), recorded a series of hit ballads in the 1950s and early ’60s and sold more than 50 million records during his career. Cornell, a baritone, joined bandleader Sammy Kaye’s o

  • varlet (title)

    knight: …(literally “lordling”), or varlet, or valet (German: Knappe), until he followed his patron on a campaign as his shield bearer, écuyer, or esquire, or as the bearer of his weapons (armiger). When he was adjudged proficient and the money was forthcoming for the purchase of his knightly equipment, he would…

  • Varma, Mahadevi (Indian writer and activist)

    Mahadevi Varma, Indian writer, activist, and leading poet of the Chhayavad movement in Hindi literature. Varma, whose father was a professor of English, obtained a master’s degree in Sanskrit from the University of Allahabad. As one of the principal figures of the Chhayavad school of Hindi

  • Varma, Mahesh Prasad (Indian religious leader)

    Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, Hindu religious leader who introduced the practice of transcendental meditation (TM) to the West. Little is known of the Maharishi’s early life. He studied physics at the University of Allahābād and worked for a time in factories. He later left for the Himalayas, where for 13

  • Varma, Raja Ravi (Indian artist)

    Ravi Varma, Indian painter best known for uniting Hindu mythological subject matter with European realist historicist painting style. He was one of the first Indian artists to use oil paints and to master the art of lithographic reproduction of his work. In addition to incidents in Hindu mythology,

  • Varma, Ravi (Indian artist)

    Ravi Varma, Indian painter best known for uniting Hindu mythological subject matter with European realist historicist painting style. He was one of the first Indian artists to use oil paints and to master the art of lithographic reproduction of his work. In addition to incidents in Hindu mythology,

  • varmam (medicine)

    Siddha medicine: Varmam: Varma is an area of practice in Siddha medicine that is concerned with varmam. The varmam are points of intersection of bone, muscle, tendons, nerves, and blood vessels. The ancient siddhars believed that disease emerged when these points were adversely affected by an external…

  • V?rmland (county, Sweden)

    V?rmland, l?n (county) of west-central Sweden, extending north from V?nern (lake) and northwest to the Norwegian frontier. It takes in most of the traditional landskap (province) of V?rmland. Much of its area forms a plateau, reaching a height of 2,267 feet (691 metres) at Br?nberget in the north.

  • V?rmlands (county, Sweden)

    V?rmland, l?n (county) of west-central Sweden, extending north from V?nern (lake) and northwest to the Norwegian frontier. It takes in most of the traditional landskap (province) of V?rmland. Much of its area forms a plateau, reaching a height of 2,267 feet (691 metres) at Br?nberget in the north.

  • Varmus, Harold (American scientist)

    Harold Varmus, American virologist and cowinner (with J. Michael Bishop) of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1989 for his work on the origins of cancer. Varmus graduated from Amherst (Massachusetts) College (B.A.) in 1961, from Harvard University (M.A.) in 1962, and from Columbia

  • Varmus, Harold Elliot (American scientist)

    Harold Varmus, American virologist and cowinner (with J. Michael Bishop) of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1989 for his work on the origins of cancer. Varmus graduated from Amherst (Massachusetts) College (B.A.) in 1961, from Harvard University (M.A.) in 1962, and from Columbia

  • var?a (Hinduism)

    Varna, any one of the four traditional social classes of India. Although the literal meaning of the word varna (Sanskrit: “colour”) once invited speculation that class distinctions were originally based on differences in degree of skin pigmentation between an alleged group of lighter-skinned

  • Varna (Bulgaria)

    Varna, seaport and third largest city in Bulgaria. Lying on the north shore of Varna Bay on the Black Sea coast, the city is sheltered by the Dobrudzhansko plateau, which rises to more than 1,000 feet (300 metres) above sea level. A narrow canal (1907) links Varna Lake—a drowned valley into which

  • varna (Hinduism)

    Varna, any one of the four traditional social classes of India. Although the literal meaning of the word varna (Sanskrit: “colour”) once invited speculation that class distinctions were originally based on differences in degree of skin pigmentation between an alleged group of lighter-skinned

  • Varna, Battle of (Balkan history [1444])

    Battle of Varna, (November 10, 1444), Turkish victory over a Hungarian force, ending the European powers’ efforts to save Constantinople (now Istanbul) from Turkish conquest and enabling the Ottoman Empire to confirm and expand its control over the Balkans. The Christian retaliation against the

  • varnam (music)

    South Asian arts: South India: The varnam, a completely composed piece, serves mainly as a warming up and is performed at the beginning of a concert. Pada and javali are two kinds of love songs using the poetic imagery characteristic of the romantic-devotional movement mentioned earlier. Tillana has a text composed…

  • Varnay, Astrid (American singer)

    Astrid Varnay, (Ibolyka Astrid Maria Varnay), Swedish-born American opera singer (born April 25, 1918, Stockholm, Swed.—died Sept. 4, 2006, Munich, Ger.), was one of the leading Wagnerian sopranos of her day. Born to Hungarian parents who were both opera singers, Varnay moved with her family as a c

  • Varner family (fictional characters)

    Varner family, fictional characters in the novel The Hamlet (1940) by William Faulkner. The leading landholder in Frenchman’s Bend, Yoknapatawpha county, Miss., Will Varner is an aging, temperate lawyer who transfers many of his business affairs to his 30-year-old son, Jody. Varner’s vapid daughter

  • Varney Airlines (American company)

    Continental Airlines, Inc.: …company traced its history to Varney Airlines, incorporated by Walter T. Varney in 1934. Later it came under the control of Robert Forman Six (president 1938–82), who gave the airline the name Continental and, in the following decades, transformed the shoestring operation into one of the major American transportation companies,…

  • Varney, James (American actor)

    James Varney, (“Jim”), American comedian (born June 15, 1949, Lexington, Ky.—died Feb. 10, 2000, White House, Tenn.), starred in numerous television commercials and nine films as Ernest P. Worrell, a dim-witted Southern handyman who provoked laughter with the catchphrase “KnowhutImean, Vern?” The f

  • Varney, Reg (British actor and comedian)

    Reg Varney, (Reginald Alfred Varney), British actor and comedian (born July 11, 1916, London, Eng.—died Nov. 16, 2008, Budleigh Salterton, Devon, Eng.), portrayed the amiable bus driver Stan Butler on the hit British television situation comedy On the Buses (1969–73) and in three hugely successful

  • Varney, Reginald Alfred (British actor and comedian)

    Reg Varney, (Reginald Alfred Varney), British actor and comedian (born July 11, 1916, London, Eng.—died Nov. 16, 2008, Budleigh Salterton, Devon, Eng.), portrayed the amiable bus driver Stan Butler on the hit British television situation comedy On the Buses (1969–73) and in three hugely successful

  • Varney, Walter T. (American businessman)

    Continental Airlines, Inc.: …to Varney Airlines, incorporated by Walter T. Varney in 1934. Later it came under the control of Robert Forman Six (president 1938–82), who gave the airline the name Continental and, in the following decades, transformed the shoestring operation into one of the major American transportation companies, headquartered first in Denver…

  • Varnhagen von Ense, Karl August (German writer and diplomat)

    Karl August Varnhagen von Ense, German writer, diplomat, biographer, and, with his wife, Rahel, a leading figure of a Berlin salon that became a centre of intellectual debate. Varnhagen began his literary career (1804) by becoming joint editor of a poetry annual. Enlisting in the Austrian army

  • Varnhagen von Ense, Rahel (German patroness)

    Rahel Varnhagen von Ense, German literary hostess from early in the 19th century whose soirees were attended by many of the German Romantics, notably August Wilhelm von Schlegel, Friedrich von Schlegel, Ludwig Tieck, and Heinrich Heine. Levin was from a wealthy Jewish family of Berlin. Her brother

  • Varnhagen, Francisco Adolfo (Brazilian historian)

    Pedro álvares Cabral: …1848 by the Brazilian historian Francisco Adolfo Varnhagen.

  • varnish (coating)

    Varnish, liquid coating material containing a resin that dries to a hard transparent film. Most varnishes are a blend of resin, drying oil, drier, and volatile solvent. When varnish dries, its solvent portion evaporates, and the remaining constituents oxidize or polymerize to form a durable

  • varnish tree (tree group)

    Varnish tree, any of various trees whose milky juice is used to make a varnish or lacquer. The term is applied particularly to an Asian tree (Toxicodendron vernicifluum), related to poison ivy, that is highly irritating to the skin. On being tapped, the tree exudes a thick, milky emulsion that was

  • varnish tree (plant)

    Goldenrain tree, (Koelreuteria paniculata), flowering tree of the soapberry family (Sapindaceae), native to East Asia and widely cultivated in temperate regions for its handsome foliage and curious bladderlike seedpods. The dome-shaped tree grows to about 9 metres (30 feet) tall. The yellow

  • Varo, Remedios (Mexican artist)

    Remedios Varo, Spanish-Mexican artist who played an integral role in the Mexico City-based Surrealist movement. She is known for her enigmatic paintings of androgynous beings engaged in magic arts or the occult. Varo was raised in a well-educated family. Her father, a hydraulics engineer, taught

  • Varohío (people)

    northern Mexican Indian: … of the southwestern Chihuahua; the Guarijío, a small group which borders the Tarahumara on the northwest and are closely related to them; the Yaqui, in the Río Yaqui valley of Sonora and in scattered colonies in towns of that state and in Arizona; and the Mayo of southern Sonora and…

  • Varosha (section, Famagusta, Cyprus)

    Famagusta: …administration, a modern suburb called Varosha was developed south of Famagusta as a commercial centre and tourist resort. After the Turkish intervention in 1974, Varosha was sealed off to civilians and tourism ceased. Settlers from mainland Turkey were relocated in Famagusta, parts of Varosha (after 1976), and in the surrounding…

  • Varoufakis, Yanis (Greek-Australian politician and economist)

    Alexis Tsipras: Guiding Greece through the financial crisis: …his new minister of finance, Yanis Varoufakis—convinced that they were the vanguard of a broader European anti-austerity movement—went on a charm offensive to try to persuade other EU leaders to buy into a renegotiation of the bailout. While their casual open-shirt style was much commented upon, Tsipras and Varoufakis met…

  • Varpas (Lithuanian political journal)

    Vincas Kudirka: …through an underground literary-political journal, Varpas (1889–1905; “The Bell”), articulated a broadly representative protest against Russian attempts to submerge the awakening national culture of its Lithuanian provinces.

  • Varqeh o-Golshāh (work by ?Eyyūqī)

    Islamic arts: Epic and romance: They include the tale of Varqeh o-Golshāh (“Varqeh and Golshāh”) by ?Eyyūqī (11th century) and Vīs o-Rāmīn (“Vīs and Rāmīn”) by Fakhr od-Dīn Gorgānī (died after 1055), which has parallels with the Tristan story of medieval romance. These were soon superseded, however, by the great romantic epics of Ne?āmī of…

  • Varro, Marcus Terentius (Roman author)

    Marcus Terentius Varro, Rome’s greatest scholar and a satirist of stature, best known for his Saturae Menippeae (“Menippean Satires”). He was a man of immense learning and a prolific author. Inspired by a deep patriotism, he intended his work, by its moral and educational quality, to further Roman

  • Varroa destructor (mite)

    honeybee: Diseases of honeybees: …America include the nonnative parasites Varroa destructor and Tropilaelaps clareae. Colony collapse disorder (CCD), which was first reported in 2006 in the United States, caused massive colony losses and presented significant challenges for crop pollination, a major service of the beekeeping industry in North America. The detection of CCD also…

  • Varron Fran?ais, Le (French scholar)

    Charles du Fresne, seigneur du Cange, one of the great French universal scholars of the 17th century, who wrote dictionaries of medieval Latin and Greek using a historical approach to language that pointed toward modern linguistic criticism. Du Cange was educated at the Jesuit college of Amiens and

  • Varsovie, Duché de (historical state, Poland)

    Duchy of Warsaw, independent Polish state created by Napoleon. It became a focal point of efforts to restore the Polish nation, which had been destroyed by the Partitions of Poland made by Russia, Prussia, and Austria in 1772, 1793, and 1795. Established by the Treaties of Tilsit (July 7 and 9,

  • Varsovie, Grand-Duché de (historical state, Poland)

    Duchy of Warsaw, independent Polish state created by Napoleon. It became a focal point of efforts to restore the Polish nation, which had been destroyed by the Partitions of Poland made by Russia, Prussia, and Austria in 1772, 1793, and 1795. Established by the Treaties of Tilsit (July 7 and 9,

  • Varsovie, Grand-Duché de (historical state, Poland)

    Duchy of Warsaw, independent Polish state created by Napoleon. It became a focal point of efforts to restore the Polish nation, which had been destroyed by the Partitions of Poland made by Russia, Prussia, and Austria in 1772, 1793, and 1795. Established by the Treaties of Tilsit (July 7 and 9,

  • varsovienne (dance)

    mazurka: The varsovienne (Italian varsoviana) is a 19th-century French couple dance that evolved from a simple mazurka step. Also closely related to the mazurka are the smooth, somewhat slower kujawiak and the energetic oberek.

  • Varthema, Lodovico de (Italian adventurer)

    Lodovico de Varthema, intrepid Italian traveler and adventurer whose account of his Middle Eastern and Asiatic wanderings was widely circulated throughout Europe and earned him high fame in his own lifetime. He made significant discoveries (especially in Arabia) and made many valuable observations

  • Vartomanus, Lodovico de (Italian adventurer)

    Lodovico de Varthema, intrepid Italian traveler and adventurer whose account of his Middle Eastern and Asiatic wanderings was widely circulated throughout Europe and earned him high fame in his own lifetime. He made significant discoveries (especially in Arabia) and made many valuable observations

  • Varttika (work by Uddyotakara)

    Indian philosophy: The old school: Uddyotakara’s Varttika (c. 635) was written after a period during which major Buddhist works, but no major Hindu work, on logic were written. Uddyotakara undertook to refute Nagarjuna and Dignaga. He criticized and refuted Dignaga’s theory of perception, the Buddhist denial of soul, and the anyapoha…

  • Varu-Karta (Iranian mythology)

    ancient Iranian religion: Cosmography: …on the cosmic sea called Varu-Karta. In the centre of the earth was the cosmic mountain Harā, down which flowed the river Ardvī. The earth was divided into six continents surrounding the central continent, Khvaniratha, the locus of Aryāna Vaijah, the Aryan land (i.e., Iran).

  • Varuna (Indian deity)

    Varuna, in the Vedic phase of Hindu mythology, the god-sovereign, the personification of divine authority. He is the ruler of the sky realm and the upholder of cosmic and moral law (rita), a duty shared with the group of gods known as the Adityas (see Aditi), of whom he was the chief. He is often

  • Varunan (Tamil deity)

    Hinduism: Vernacular literatures: Varunan, a sea god who had adopted the name of an old Vedic god but otherwise had few Vedic features, and Mayon, a black god who was a rural divinity with many of the characteristics of Krishna in his pastoral aspect, also are depicted in…

  • varus (sports medicine)

    turf toe: Injury mechanism: Varus (bending inside) and valgus (bending outside) are two other described mechanisms. Valgus is most commonly seen in a football lineman who is pushing off from a stance. Varus is rarely seen but can occur when an outward force is applied to a fixed forefoot.

  • Varus, Publius Quinctilius (Roman general)

    Publius Quinctilius Varus, Roman general whose loss of three legions to Germanic tribes in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest caused great shock in Rome and stemmed Roman expansion beyond the Rhine River. Varus came of an old patrician family, which had been without political influence for

  • Varus, Sextus Quintilius (Roman patrician)

    Publius Quinctilius Varus: His father, Sextus Quinctilius Varus, was one of the assassins of Julius Caesar and committed suicide after the Battle of Philippi (42 bc). Varus arranged a good marriage for himself with a daughter of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, the primary adviser to the emperor Augustus. In 13 bc…

  • varve (geology)

    Varved deposit, any form of repetitive sedimentary rock stratification, either bed or lamination, that was deposited within a one-year time period. This annual deposit may comprise paired contrasting laminations of alternately finer and coarser silt or clay, reflecting seasonal sedimentation

  • varve analysis (geochronology)

    Gerhard, Baron De Geer: …Swedish geologist, originator of the varve-counting method used in geochronology.

  • varve chronology (geochronology)

    Gerhard, Baron De Geer: …Swedish geologist, originator of the varve-counting method used in geochronology.

  • varved deposit (geology)

    Varved deposit, any form of repetitive sedimentary rock stratification, either bed or lamination, that was deposited within a one-year time period. This annual deposit may comprise paired contrasting laminations of alternately finer and coarser silt or clay, reflecting seasonal sedimentation

  • varvite (mineral)

    varved deposit: …where they are often termed varvite, frequently display disruption of the fine lamination and couplets by outsize clasts. These clasts are called dropstones and were introduced vertically through the water column into the lake area, where only fine-grained sediments normally accumulate, by ice rafting and melting. This phenomenon of disrupted…

  • varying hare (mammal)

    Snowshoe hare, (Lepus americanus), northern North American species of hare that undergoes an annual colour change from brownish or grayish in summer to pure white in winter. The hind feet are heavily furred, and all four feet are large in proportion to body size, a snowshoe-like adaptation that

  • várzea forest (ecology)

    Amazon River: …river and its tributaries, called várzeas (“floodplains”), are subject to annual flooding, with consequent soil enrichment; however, most of the vast basin consists of upland, well above the inundations and known as terra firme. More than two-thirds of the basin is covered by an immense rainforest, which grades into dry…

  • Vas (county, Hungary)

    Vas, megye (county), western Hungary. It borders the counties of Gy?r-Moson-Sopron to the north, Veszprém to the east, and Zala to the south, along with the countries of Slovenia to the southwest and Austria to the west. Its name derives from the town of Vasvár, which lies on the bank of the Dráva

  • vas deferens (anatomy)

    Ductus deferens, thick-walled tube in the male reproductive system that transports sperm cells from the epididymis, where the sperm are stored prior to ejaculation. Each ductus deferens ends in an enlarged portion, an ampulla, which acts as a reservoir. There are two ductus deferentes, identical in

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