Since the 19th century, many researchers working across a wide range of academic disciplines have contributed to an enhanced understanding of the atmosphere and the global climate system. Concern among prominent climate scientists about global warming and human-induced (or “anthropogenic”) climate change arose in the mid-20th century, but most scientific and political debate over the issue did not begin until the 1980s. Today, leading climate scientists agree that many of the ongoing changes to the global climate system are largely caused by the release into the atmosphere of greenhouse gases—gases that enhance Earth’s natural greenhouse effect. Most greenhouse gases are released by the burning of fossil fuels for heating, cooking, electrical generation, transportation, and manufacturing, but they are also released as a result of the natural decomposition of organic materials, wildfires, deforestation, and land-clearing activities. Opponents of this view have often stressed the role of natural factors in past climatic variation and have accentuated the scientific uncertainties associated with data on global warming and climate change. Nevertheless, a growing body of scientists has called upon governments, industries, and citizens to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases.
All countries emit greenhouse gases, but highly industrialized countries and more populous countries emit significantly greater quantities than others. Countries in North America and Europe that were the first to undergo the process of industrialization have been responsible for releasing most greenhouse gases in absolute cumulative terms since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the mid-18th century. Today these countries are being joined by large developing countries such as China and India, where rapid industrialization is being accompanied by a growing release of greenhouse gases. The United States, possessing approximately 5 percent of the global population, emitted almost 21 percent of global greenhouse gases in 2000. The same year, the then 25 member states of the European Union (EU)—possessing a combined population of 450 million people—emitted 14 percent of all anthropogenic greenhouse gases. This figure was roughly the same as the fraction released by the 1.2 billion people of China. In 2000 the average American emitted 24.5 tons of greenhouse gases, the average person living in the EU released 10.5 tons, and the average person living in China discharged only 3.9 tons. Although China’s per capita greenhouse gas emissions remained significantly lower than those of the EU and the United States, it was the largest greenhouse gas emitter in 2006 in absolute terms.
The IPCC and the scientific consensus
An important first step in formulating public policy on global warming and climate change is the gathering of relevant scientific and socioeconomic data. In 1988 the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established by the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme. The IPCC is mandated to assess and summarize the latest scientific, technical, and socioeconomic data on climate change and to publish its findings in reports presented to international organizations and national governments all over the world. Many thousands of the world’s leading scientists and experts in the areas of global warming and climate change have worked under the IPCC, producing major sets of assessments in 1990, 1995, 2001, 2007, and 2014, and several special additional assessments. Those reports evaluated the scientific basis of global warming and climate change, the major issues relating to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and the process of adjusting to a changing climate.
The first IPCC report, published in 1990, stated that a good deal of data showed that human activity affected the variability of the climate system; nevertheless, the authors of the report could not reach a consensus on the causes and effects of global warming and climate change at that time. The 1995 IPCC report stated that the balance of evidence suggested “a discernible human influence on the climate.” The 2001 IPCC report confirmed earlier findings and presented stronger evidence that most of the warming over the previous 50 years was attributable to human activities. The 2001 report also noted that observed changes in regional climates were beginning to affect many physical and biological systems and that there were indications that social and economic systems were also being affected.
The IPCC’s fourth assessment, issued in 2007, reaffirmed the main conclusions of earlier reports, but the authors also stated—in what was regarded as a conservative judgment—that they were at least 90 percent certain that most of the warming observed over the previous half century had been caused by the release of greenhouse gases through a multitude of human activities. Both the 2001 and 2007 reports stated that during the 20th century there had been an increase in global average surface temperature of 0.6 °C (1.1 °F), within a margin of error of ±0.2 °C (0.4 °F). Whereas the 2001 report forecast an additional rise in average temperature by 1.4 to 5.8 °C (2.5 to 10.4 °F) by 2100, the 2007 report refined this forecast to an increase of 1.8–4.0 °C (3.2–7.2 °F) by the end of the 21st century. Those forecasts were based on examinations of a range of scenarios that characterized future trends in greenhouse gas emissions.
The IPCC’s fifth assessment, released in 2014, further refined projected increases in global average temperature and sea level. The 2014 report stated that the interval between 1880 and 2012 saw an increase in global average temperature of approximately 0.85 °C (1.5 °F) and that the interval between 1901 and 2010 saw an increase in global average sea level of about 19–21 cm (7.5–8.3 inches). The report predicted that by the end of the 21st century surface temperatures across the globe would increase between 0.3 and 4.8 °C (0.5 and 8.6 °F), and sea level could rise between 26 and 82 cm (10.2 and 32.3 inches) relative to the 1986–2005 average.
Each IPCC report has helped to build a scientific consensus that elevated concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are the major drivers of rising near-surface air temperatures and their associated ongoing climatic changes. In this respect, the current episode of climatic change, which began about the middle of the 20th century, is seen to be fundamentally different from earlier periods in that critical adjustments have been caused by activities resulting from human behaviour rather than nonanthropogenic factors. The IPCC’s 2007 assessment projected that future climatic changes could be expected to include continued warming, modifications to precipitation patterns and amounts, elevated sea levels, and “changes in the frequency and intensity of some extreme events.” Such changes would have significant effects on many societies and on ecological systems around the world (see Climate Research and the Effects of Global Warming).
The UN Framework Convention and the Kyoto Protocol
The reports of the IPCC and the scientific consensus they reflect have provided one of the most prominent bases for the formulation of climate-change policy. On a global scale, climate-change policy is guided by two major treaties: the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) of 1992 and the associated 1997 Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC (named after the city in Japan where it was concluded).
The UNFCCC was negotiated between 1991 and 1992. It was adopted at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992 and became legally binding in March 1994. In Article 2 the UNFCCC sets the long-term objective of “stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.” Article 3 establishes that the world’s countries have “common but differentiated responsibilities,” meaning that all countries share an obligation to act—though industrialized countries have a particular responsibility to take the lead in reducing emissions because of their relative contribution to the problem in the past. To this end, the UNFCCC Annex I lists 41 specific industrialized countries and countries with economies in transition plus the European Community (EC; formally succeeded by the EU in 2009), and Article 4 states that these countries should work to reduce their anthropogenic emissions to 1990 levels. However, no deadline is set for this target. Moreover, the UNFCCC does not assign any specific reduction commitments to non-Annex I countries (that is, developing countries).
The follow-up agreement to the UNFCCC, the Kyoto Protocol, was negotiated between 1995 and 1997 and was adopted in December 1997. The Kyoto Protocol regulates six greenhouse gases released through human activities: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). Under the Kyoto Protocol, Annex I countries are required to reduce their aggregate emissions of greenhouse gases to 5.2 percent below their 1990 levels by no later than 2012. Toward this goal, the protocol sets individual reduction targets for each Annex I country. These targets require the reduction of greenhouse gases in most countries, but they also allow increased emissions from others. For example, the protocol requires the then 15 member states of the EU and 11 other European countries to reduce their emissions to 8 percent below their 1990 emission levels, whereas Iceland, a country that produces relatively small amounts of greenhouse gases, may increase its emissions as much as 10 percent above its 1990 level. In addition, the Kyoto Protocol requires three countries—New Zealand, Ukraine, and Russia—to freeze their emissions at 1990 levels.
The Kyoto Protocol outlines five requisites by which Annex I parties can choose to meet their 2012 emission targets. First, it requires the development of national policies and measures that lower domestic greenhouse gas emissions. Second, countries may calculate the benefits from domestic carbon sinks that soak up more carbon than they emit. Third, countries can participate in schemes that trade emissions with other Annex I countries. Fourth, signatory countries may create joint implementation programs with other Annex I parties and receive credit for such projects that lower emissions. Fifth, countries may receive credit for lowering the emissions in non-Annex I countries through a “clean development” mechanism, such as investing in the building of a new wind power project.
In order to go into effect, the Kyoto Protocol had to be ratified by at least 55 countries, including enough Annex I countries to account for at least 55 percent of that group’s total greenhouse gas emissions. More than 55 countries quickly ratified the protocol, including all the Annex I countries except for Russia, the United States, and Australia. (Russia and Australia ratified the protocol in 2005 and 2007, respectively.) It was not until Russia, under heavy pressure from the EU, ratified the protocol that it became legally binding in February 2005.
The most-developed regional climate-change policy to date has been formulated by the EU in part to meet its commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. By 2005 the 15 EU countries that have a collective commitment under the protocol reduced their greenhouse gas emissions to 2 percent below their 1990 levels, though it is not certain that they will meet their 8 percent reduction target by 2012. In 2007 the EU set a collective goal for all 27 member states to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by 20 percent below 1990 levels by the year 2020. As part of its effort to achieve this goal, the EU in 2005 established the world’s first multilateral trading scheme for carbon dioxide emissions, covering more than 11,500 large installations across its member states.
In the United States, by contrast, Pres. George W. Bush and a majority of senators rejected the Kyoto Protocol, citing the lack of compulsory emission reductions for developing countries as a particular grievance. At the same time, U.S. federal policy did not set any mandatory restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions, and U.S. emissions increased over 16 percent between 1990 and 2005. Partly to make up for a lack of direction at the federal level, many individual U.S. states formulated their own action plans to address global warming and climate change and took a host of legal and political initiatives to curb emissions. These initiatives include: capping emissions from power plants, establishing renewable portfolio standards requiring electricity providers to obtain a minimum percentage of their power from renewable sources, developing vehicle emissions and fuel standards, and adopting “green building” standards.
Future climate-change policy
Countries differ in opinion on how to proceed with international policy with respect to climate agreements. Long-term goals formulated in Europe and the United States seek to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by up to 80 percent by the middle of the 21st century. Related to these efforts, the EU set a goal of limiting temperature rises to a maximum of 2 °C (3.6 °F) above preindustrial levels. (Many climate scientists and other experts agree that significant economic and ecological damage will result should the global average of near-surface air temperatures rise more than 2 °C [3.6 °F] above preindustrial temperatures in the next century.)
Despite differences in approach, countries launched negotiations on a new treaty, based on an agreement made at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in 2007 in Bali, Indonesia, that would replace the Kyoto Protocol after it expired. At the 17th UNFCCC Conference of the Parties (COP17) held in Durban, South Africa, in 2011, the international community committed to the development of a comprehensive legally binding climate treaty that would replace the Kyoto Protocol by 2015. Such a treaty would require all greenhouse-gas-producing countries—including major carbon emitters not abiding by the Kyoto Protocol (such as China, India, and the United States)—to limit and reduce their emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. This commitment was reaffirmed by the international community at the 18th Conference of the Parties (COP18) held in Doha, Qatar, in 2012. Since the terms of the Kyoto Protocol were set to terminate in 2012, the COP17 and COP18 delegates agreed to extend the Kyoto Protocol to bridge the gap between the original expiration date and the date that the new climate treaty would become legally binding. Consequently, COP18 delegates decided that the Kyoto Protocol would terminate in 2020, the year in which the new climate treaty was expected to come into force. This extension had the added benefit of providing additional time for countries to meet their 2012 emission targets.
Convening in Paris in 2015, world leaders and other delegates at COP21 signed a global but nonbinding agreement to limit the increase of the world’s average temperature to no more than 2 °C (3.6 °F) above preindustrial levels while at the same time striving to keep this increase to 1.5 °C (2.7 °F) above preindustrial levels. The Paris Agreement was a landmark accord that mandated a progress review every five years and the development of a fund containing $100 billion by 2020—which would be replenished annually—to help developing countries adopt non-greenhouse-gas-producing technologies. The number of parties (signatories) to the convention stood at 197 by 2019, and 185 countries had ratified the agreement. Despite the United States having ratified the agreement in September 2016, the inauguration of Donald J. Trump as president in January 2017 heralded a new era in U.S. climate policy, and on June 1, 2017, Trump signaled his intention to pull the U.S. out of the climate agreement after the formal exiting process concluded, which could happen as early as November 4, 2020.
(as of April 2019)
(AS OF APRIL 2019)
A growing number of the world’s cities are initiating a multitude of local and subregional efforts to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases. Many of these municipalities are taking action as members of the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives and its Cities for Climate Protection program, which outlines principles and steps for taking local-level action. In 2005 the U.S. Conference of Mayors adopted the Climate Protection Agreement, in which cities committed to reduce emissions to 7 percent below 1990 levels by 2012. In addition, many private firms are developing corporate policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. One notable example of an effort led by the private sector is the creation of the Chicago Climate Exchange as a means for reducing emissions through a trading process.
As public policies relative to global warming and climate change continue to develop globally, regionally, nationally, and locally, they fall into two major types. The first type, mitigation policy, focuses on different ways to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. As most emissions come from the burning of fossil fuels for energy and transportation, much of the mitigation policy focuses on switching to less carbon-intensive energy sources (such as wind, solar, and hydropower), improving energy efficiency for vehicles, and supporting the development of new technology. In contrast, the second type, adaptation policy, seeks to improve the ability of various societies to face the challenges of a changing climate. For example, some adaptation policies are devised to encourage groups to change agricultural practices in response to seasonal changes, whereas other policies are designed to prepare cities located in coastal areas for elevated sea levels.
In either case, long-term reductions in greenhouse gas discharges will require the participation of both industrial countries and major developing countries. In particular, the release of greenhouse gases from Chinese and Indian sources is rising quickly in parallel with the rapid industrialization of those countries. In 2006 China overtook the United States as the world’s leading emitter of greenhouse gases in absolute terms (though not in per capita terms), largely because of China’s increased use of coal and other fossil fuels. Indeed, all the world’s countries are faced with the challenge of finding ways to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions while promoting environmentally and socially desirable economic development (known as “sustainable development” or “smart growth”). Whereas some opponents of those calling for corrective action continue to argue that short-term mitigation costs will be too high, a growing number of economists and policy makers argue that it will be less costly, and possibly more profitable, for societies to take early preventive action than to address severe climatic changes in the future. Many of the most harmful effects of a warming climate are likely to take place in developing countries. Combating the harmful effects of global warming in developing countries will be especially difficult, as many of these countries are already struggling and possess a limited capacity to meet challenges from a changing climate.
It is expected that each country will be affected differently by the expanding effort to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions. Countries that are relatively large emitters will face greater reduction demands than will smaller emitters. Similarly, countries experiencing rapid economic growth are expected to face growing demands to control their greenhouse gas emissions as they consume increasing amounts of energy. Differences will also occur across industrial sectors and even between individual companies. For example, producers of oil, coal, and natural gas—which in some cases represent significant portions of national export revenues—may see reduced demand or falling prices for their goods as their clients decrease their use of fossil fuels. In contrast, many producers of new, more climate-friendly technologies and products (such as generators of renewable energy) are likely to see increases in demand.
To address global warming and climate change, societies must find ways to fundamentally change their patterns of energy use in favour of less carbon-intensive energy generation, transportation, and forest and land use management. A growing number of countries have taken on this challenge, and there are many things individuals too can do. For instance, consumers have more options to purchase electricity generated from renewable sources. Additional measures that would reduce personal emissions of greenhouse gases and also conserve energy include the operation of more energy-efficient vehicles, the use of public transportation when available, and the transition to more energy-efficient household products. Individuals might also improve their household insulation, learn to heat and cool their residences more effectively, and purchase and recycle more environmentally sustainable products.
Written by Henrik Selin, Assistant Professor of International Relations, Boston University.
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